|| List of recent Silica-related patents
| Poly oligosiloxysilane|
The present invention relates to a new synthesis procedure for a family of silica based polymer materials synthesized through the interconnection of silicate oligomers with reactive silanes. By using this synthesis it is possible to generate novel silica based polymer materials.
| Use of inorganic matrix and organic polymer combinations for preparing stable amorphous dispersions|
The present invention relates to methods for processing pharmaceutically active substances having poor water solubility in the presence of an inorganic matrix, e.g., magnesium aluminometasilicate, and a secondary polymer as a means of converting the crystalline api to substantially amorphous and stable form, i.e., the crystallinity is less than 5%. The methods of the invention result in more complete amorphization, increased solubility, drug loading and stability as compared to typical amorphization or literature methods..
| Apparatus and method for manufacturing silica-titania catalyst|
Provided are an apparatus and method for preparing a silica-titania catalyst. The apparatus for preparing a silica-titania catalyst, comprising: precursor supplying units; an oxygen supplying line; a reaction unit; and a recovering unit, wherein the precursor supplying units vaporize a silica precursor and titania precursor and supply them to the reaction unit, wherein the oxygen supplying line supplies an oxygen source to the reaction unit, wherein the reaction unit converts vaporizates of the silica precursor and titania precursor supplied from the precursor supplying units to produce a silica-titania catalyst, wherein the recovering unit cools, condenses and collects the silica-titania catalyst produced at the reaction unit, wherein the recovering unit comprises a cooler for cooling the silica-titania catalyst introduced from the reaction unit, and the cooler comprises a turbulence-forming section on a flow path of the silica-titania catalyst..
| Porous sic ceramic and method for the fabrication thereof|
There is provided a method for the fabrication of porous sic ceramic. The method comprises oxidizing particles of sic ceramic thereby forming amorphous silica on the surface of the particles.
| Toner additives|
The disclosure relates generally to toner additives, and in particular, toner additives that provide desired higher and stable toner charge. The toner additives comprise silica nanotubes in combination with or in place of the commonly used silica or titania particulate additives..
| Method for controlling microstructural arrangement of nominally-aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes|
A method for controlling the microstructural arrangement of nominally-aligned arrays of carbon nanotubes (cnts) and a foam structure of cnts are disclosed. The method includes a functionalization of cnt surfaces, for example, a non-covalent functionalization.
| Utility materials incorporating a microparticle matrix formed with a setting agent|
A composition, utility material, and method of making a utility material is disclosed. A composition having an improved setting time may include a plurality of microparticles mixed with a sodium silicate binder and an isocyanate setting agent, where the microparticle composition has a setting time of less than or equal to one hour.
| Molding roller, apparatus and method for manufacturing same|
A molding roller includes a cylindrical main body and a seamless ring-shaped molding film. The main body has a circumferential surface.
| Molding roller, apparatus and method for manufacturing same|
A molding roller includes a cylindrical main body and a flexible molding film. The main body has a circumferential surface.
| Low drift reference for laser radar|
Laser radar systems include a pentaprism configured to scan a measurement beam with respect to a target surface. A focusing optical assembly includes a corner cube that is used to adjust measurement beam focus.
| Elastomeric shaft seal formed without oven post curing|
An elastomeric seal (20), such as a shaft seal for automotive vehicle applications, includes an elastomeric compound (22) chemically coupled to a metal sealing ring (24) and is formed without an oven post curing step. The elastomeric seal (20) provides exceptional physical properties, similar to those of elastomeric seals of the prior art formed with an oven post curing step.
| Diode and display panel|
The present invention provides a diode and display panel, which includes: cathode and anode; wherein, cathode and anode being disposed relatively. Electron transport layer is disposed between cathode and anode.
| Set-delayed cement compositions comprising pumice and associated methods|
Disclosed herein are cement compositions and methods of using set-delayed cement compositions in subterranean formations. An embodiment includes a method of cementing in a subterranean formation comprising: providing a cement composition comprising water, pumice, hydrated lime, a set retarder, and a strength enhancer, wherein the strength enhancer comprises at least one material selected from the group consisting of cement kiln dust, slag, amorphous silica, a pozzolan, and any combination thereof; introducing the cement composition into the subterranean formation; and allowing the cement composition to set in the subterranean formation..
| Bleach stabilizer compositions and methods|
Compositions for and methods of stabilizing bleaching and making paper or paperboard having suitable brightness are provided. A stabilizer composition is provided containing aminocarboxylate, hydroxy acid, and either polyamino acid or iminodisuccinate, or both.
| Molding roller, apparatus and method for manufacturing same|
An apparatus includes a film chemical treatment device, a loading plate, a processing device, a mounting device, and a cutting device. The film chemical treatment device forms a number of silica nanoparticles in the polymer grids of an original molding film to obtain a preprocessed molding film.
| Molding roller, apparatus and method for manufacturing same|
An apparatus includes a metallic plate, a mixing assembly, a curing device, a receiving container, a mounting device, a cutting device, and a vacuum chamber. The metallic plate has a planar imprinting surface.
| Molding roller, apparatus and method for manufacturing same|
An apparatus includes a mixing assembly, a metallic plate, a curing device, a film chemical treatment device, a mounting device, and a cutting device. The mixing assembly obtains a polymer resin with polymer grids.
| Rubber composition for sidewall and tire using the same|
An object of the present invention is to provide a rubber composition for a sidewall having excellent conductivity, anti-spew cutting property and extrusion processability in good balance and assuring low production cost. The present invention provides a rubber composition for a sidewall comprising 2 to 15 parts by mass of a wet processed silica having a bet specific surface area of 70 to 250 m2/g and 40 to 62 parts by mass of a carbon black having a bet specific surface area of 37 to 125 m2/g based on 100 parts by mass of a diene rubber component, wherein the rubber composition does not contain a silane coupling agent, and has a volume resistivity of not more than 1×108 Ω·cm..
| Rubber cement and tire with fabricated tire tread|
The invention relates to a rubber cement, fabricated tire tread and resulting tire, where the tire tread is fabricated by joining ends of an uncured rubber strip together with a silica coupler-containing rubber cement between opposing ends of the uncured tread rubber strip where the rubber strip contains a high content of hydrophobated precipitated silica and where the cement contains a silica coupling agent.. .
| Water based rubber cement and tire with fabricated tread|
The invention relates to a water based rubber cement and tire with fabricated tread where the tire tread is fabricated by joining ends of an uncured rubber strip containing a high content of hydrophobated precipitated silica content with a water based cement containing a diene-based elastomer and a component reactive with said diene based elastomer and with residual hydroxyl groups on said hydrophobated precipitated silica contained in said uncured rubber strip.. .
| Fast setting low permeability cement and concrete|
A calcium sulfoaluminate-based concrete with a permeability of less than 1000 coulombs. Rapid-setting low chloride-ion permeability calcium sulfoaluminate (csa) cements and concretes include csa and a suitable polymer such as a sol-gel derived, organic-inorganic, silica based hybrid coating solutions of polystyrene-butylacrylate polymers containing active silanol groups protected by hydroxyl groups containing polyalcohol, or other polymers.
|Method for producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|
Method for producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons includes a cracking and reforming reaction step of obtaining products containing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having 6 to 8 carbon atoms and a heavy fraction having 9 or more carbon atoms by bringing the feedstock oil into contact with a catalyst for producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing crystalline aluminosilicate to cause a reaction, a catalyst separation step of separating and removing the catalyst for producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons together with tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the products from a mixture of the products and a small amount of the catalyst for producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons carried by the products, both of which are derived in the cracking and reforming reaction step, and a purification and recovery step of purifying and recovering the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having 6 to 8 carbon atoms which are separated from the products formed in the cracking and reforming reaction step.. .
|Method for purifying rocuronium bromide|
Provided is a method for purifying rocuronium bromide, which comprises: formulating crude rocuronium bromide to be purified into an aqueous solution, distilling off excess residue solvents at reduced pressure, absorbing by adding active carbon or silica gel, then filtrating, quick freezing the filtrate into ice, and then lyophilizing to obtain rocuronium bromide.. .
|Terminal modifier for conjugated diene polymers|
Disclosed is a terminal modifier for conjugated diene polymers. The terminal modifier has both at least two amine groups and at least one alkoxysilane group.
|High residual effect and low off-site movement auxin herbicide formulations|
The present invention generally relates to high residual effect and/or low off-site movement anionic herbicide formulations and, more particularly, auxin herbicide formulations. Generally, the formulations of the present invention include an anionic herbicide (e.g., an auxin herbicide), a particulate sorbent (e.g., silica), a cationic surfactant, and water..
|Titanium oxynitride hard mask for lithographic patterning|
A vertical stack including a dielectric hard mask layer and a titanium nitride layer is formed over an interconnect-level dielectric material layer such as an organosilicate glass layer. The titanium nitride layer may be partially or fully converted into a titanium oxynitride layer, which is subsequently patterned with a first pattern.
|Charging load for making tft glass and method of making same|
A charging load and a method of making the same wherein the charging load includes at least three diverse mineral raw materials in pre-selected percentages, the charging load being transformable into an aluminosilicate glass product by heating to a temperature of at least 1,200° c. And being a mass of structurally stabilized individual beads, where each of the beads is a composite of the at least three diverse mineral raw materials made non-friable by a partial sintering process, each bead of the mass containing a homogeneous mixture of ground and sized particles of the at least three diverse mineral raw materials, where the particles have a controlled maximum particle size of less than 30 microns and are mixed in each of the beads at the pre-selected percentages..
|Refractory vessels and methods for forming same|
The disclosure relates to methods of forming a vessel and to the resulting vessel. The vessel may be formed by providing a first fumed silica soot layer comprised of primary particles of fumed silica soot, and then providing over the first fumed silica soot layer a second fumed silica soot layer comprised of agglomerated particles formed into an agglomerated form from primary particles of fumed silica soot.
|Highly reflective, hardened silica titania article and method of making|
The present disclosure is directed to improved silica-titania glass articles intended for use in euv or other high energy reflective optic systems, and to a process for producing such improved silica-titania articles. The improved silica-titania glass articles provide a more stable surface for the coatings that are used in the making of reflective optical elements for euv applications.
|Cement and skinning material for ceramic honeycomb structures|
Skins and/or adhesive layers are formed on a porous ceramic honeycomb by applying a layer of a cement composition to a surface of the honeycomb and firing the cement composition. The cement composition contains inorganic filler particles, a carrier fluid and a clay material rather than the colloidal alumina and/or silica materials that are conventionally used in such cements.
|Composition for oral cavity|
An oral composition includes high stain removal efficiency relative to its abrasive ability. The oral composition contains fused silica and a dental abrasive.
|Fiber optic connector|
A fiber optic connector includes a ferrule. The ferrule includes an inner piece including silica and an outer piece including ceramic.
|Activated flotation circuit for processing combined oxide and sulfide ores|
A method of extracting targeted metallic minerals from ores that contain sulfide metallic minerals along with oxide minerals, carbonate minerals, silicate minerals, halide minerals or combinations thereof. In the method, an ore slurry containing the metallic mineral in oxide, carbonate, silicate or halide form is provided.
A proppant includes a particle and a hybrid coating disposed about the particle. The particle is present in an amount of from about 90 to about 99.5 percent by weight based on the total weight of the proppant and the hybrid coating is present in an amount of from about 0.5 to about 10 percent by weight based on the total weight of the proppant.
|Enhanced crude oil recovery using metal silicides|
Enhanced oil recovery techniques include introduction of alkali metal silicides into subterranean reservoirs to generate hydrogen gas, heat, and alkali metal silicate solutions in situ upon contact with water. The alkali metal silicides, such as sodium silicide, are used to recover hydrocarbons, including heavier crudes where viscosity and low reservoir pressure are limiting factors.
|High performance tyre for vehicle wheels|
A tyre for vehicle wheels, includes a carcass structure including at least one carcass layer, a belt structure applied in a radially outer position with respect to the carcass structure, a tread band applied in a radially outer position with respect to the belt structure, and at least one layer of elastomeric material applied in a radially inner position with respect to the tread band; in which the at least one elastomeric material layer includes inorganic fibres of magnesium and/or aluminium silicates of nanometric dimensions.. .
|Production of thermal insulation products|
Methods of making thermal insulation products are provided, one method including the steps of sealing a support material (e.g., a nanoporous core such as fumed silica, an aerogel powder, etc.) and at least one vapor (e.g., steam) within an interior portion of a substantially gas-impermeable envelope (e.g., a metallic and/or polymeric film), and then condensing at least a portion of the vapor after the sealing step to reduce the pressure within the gas-impermeable envelope from a first pressure before the condensing to a lower second pressure after the condensing. The disclosed methods limit or eliminate the need for mechanism pumping mechanisms to drawing the vacuum within the products, drying of the core before the sealing, and the like..
|Aromatic transformation using uzm-39 aluminosilicate zeolite|
Where “n” is the mole ratio of na to (al+e), m represents at least one meta, “m” is the mole ratio of m to (al+e), “k” is the average charge of the metal or metals m, t is the organic structure directing agent or agents, “t” is the mole ratio of n from the organic structure directing agent or agents to (al+e), and e is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting at least a first aromatic with the coherently grown composites of tun and imf zeotypes to produce at least a second aromatic..
Wherein the silica-supported catalyst has an average pore size of 60 to 120 nm, a total pore volume of 0.15 cm3/g or more, a specific surface area of 5 to 25 m2/g, and a crystallite size of 40 to 250 nm as determined from half width of a (001) peak by x-ray diffraction.. .
|Composite and method for producing the same, rubber composition, and pneumatic tire|
The present invention aims to provide a composite including a rubber component in which surface-treated silica with a small particle size is uniformly dispersed, and a method for producing the composite. The present invention also aims to provide a rubber composition including the composite, the rubber composition capable of achieving both fuel efficiency and abrasion resistance while having excellent processability.
|Rubber composition for tires, and pneumatic tire|
Provided are: a rubber composition for tires capable of improving fuel economy, wet grip performance, and abrasion resistance; and a pneumatic tire including the same. Included is a rubber composition for tires including: a diene polymer; silica; and a liquid resin having a softening point of −20 to 20° c., the diene polymer being a modified diene polymer obtained by reacting components (a) and (b), the liquid resin being present in an amount of 3-40 parts by mass per 100 parts by mass of the rubber component, the component (a) being an active alkali metal-terminated conjugated diene polymer obtained by polymerizing a conjugated diene monomer alone or with an aromatic vinyl monomer, in the presence of a component (c) the component (b) being a modifier containing a functional group, the component (c) being a chemical species obtained by reacting an organic alkali metal compound and a compound of formula (1) below..
|Vehicle tyre having a tread comprising a heat-expandable rubber composition|
A vehicle tyre, usable in winter weather, includes a tread formed of a rubber composition that is heat-expandable when in an unvulcanized state, and expanded when in a vulcanized state. When unvulcanized, the composition includes a diene elastomer, such as natural rubber and/or a polybutadiene; more than 50 phr of a reinforcing filler, such as silica and/or carbon black; between 5 and 25 phr of a sodium- or potassium-including carbonate or hydrogen carbonate; and between 2 and 20 phr of a carboxylic acid having a melting point between 60° c.
Compositions are provided, the compositions comprising: a silica compound containing at least one nitrogen atom; and a carboxylated polymer containing at least one nitrogen atom. The compositions may be useful to control algal growth, including harmful algal blooms (hab)..
|Process for obtaining a catalyst composite|
B). Contacting the molecular sieve with a metal silicate different from said molecular sieve comprising at least one alkaline earth metal and one or more of the following metals: ga, al, ce, in, cs, sc, sn, li, zn, co, mo, mn, ni, fe, cu, cr, ti and v, such that the composite comprises at least 0.1 wt % of silicate..
|Tuning tzc by the annealing of ultra low expansion glass|
The disclosure describes a silica-titania glass having a selected titania content in the range of 5-20 wt % that has zero crossover temperature (tzc) associated with the selected titania content withing this range, and the tzc is adjustable by ±10° c. Or less.
|Porous catalytic substrate|
Some embodiments in the present disclosure generally relate to catalytic silica-polyvinyl alcohol composites, silica structures therefrom, and/or microreactors therefrom. Some embodiments in the present disclosure generally relate to porous substrates that can have at least one pore with a catalyst associated with the inside of the pore..
|Composition and method for polishing polysilicon|
The invention provides a polishing composition comprising silica, an aminophosphonic acid, a polysaccharide, a tetraalkylammonium salt, a bicarbonate salt, an azole ring, and water, wherein the polishing composition has a ph of about 7 to about 11. The invention further provides a method of polishing a substrate with the polishing composition..
|Glass neck adapter for plastic beverage container|
A glass neck adapter can include universal threads to screw onto a standard conventional plastic beverage container or bottle. The glass neck adapter can be attached on a plastic bottle to allow a person drinking from the plastic bottle to feel the sensation of drinking out of a glass bottle when the lips of the drinker contact the glass mouth of the neck adapter mounted on the plastic bottle.
|Strontium and cesium specific ion-exchange media|
This invention is directed to amorphous and crystalline titanosilicate materials that have an unexpected selectivity for cesium and strontium, especially in the presence of high levels of competing ions. The titanosilicates of this invention show very high, unexpected selectivity in the presence of such competing cations such as sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium, such as present in seawater..
|Hydrocarbon oil desulfurization adsorbing agent, production and use thereof|
This disclosure provides an adsorbing agent which, on the basis of the total weight of the adsorbing agent, comprises the following components: 1) a si—al molecular sieve having a bea structure, in an amount of 1-20 wt %, 2) at least one binder selected from the group consisting of titanium dioxide, stannic oxide, zirconium oxide and alumina, in an amount of 3-35 wt %, 3) a silica source, in an amount of 5-40 wt %, 4) zinc oxide, in an amount of 10-80 wt %, and 5) at least one promoter metal selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel, iron and manganese, based on the metal, in an amount of 5-30 wt %, wherein at least 10 wt % of the promoter metal is present in a reduced valence state. The adsorbing agent exhibits improved activity and stability, and at the same time, is capable of significantly improving the octane number of the product gasoline..
|Moisture barrier layer dielectric for thermoformable circuits|
This invention is directed to a polymer thick film moisture barrier layer dielectric composition comprising thermoplastic urethane resin, thermoplastic phenoxy resin, diacetone alcohol and fumed silica. Dielectrics made from the composition can be used in various electronic applications to protect electrical elements and particularly to insulate and protect both the conductive thermoformable silver above it and the polycarbonate substrate below it in capacitive switch applications.
|Moisture barrier layer dielectric for thermoformable circuits|
This invention is directed to a polymer thick film moisture barrier layer dielectric composition comprising thermoplastic urethane resin, thermoplastic phenoxy resin, diacetone alcohol and fumed silica. Dielectrics made from the composition can be used in various electronic applications to protect electrical elements and particularly to insulate and protect both the conductive thermoformable silver above it and the polycarbonate substrate below it in capacitive switch applications..
|Method for producing investment castings|
The liquid polymer is a polymer of the pag or pvp, or acr, or peo type. The ceramic moulds made of aluminosilicate, or high alumina refractory materials, especially based on synthetic sand, for example molochite, are used..
|Method for producing solar cell module, solar cell backside sealing sheet, and solar cell module|
A method of producing a solar cell module including forming a silicon oxide layer by coating a paint containing at least one of silicate hydrolysis products and silica particles on at least one side of a base film; and adhering said silicon oxide layer with a silicone sealing material layer.. .
|Silica reduction cover|
A filter used to reduce the emission of silica particles used in hydraulic fracturing. The silica reduction cover is a custom fit filter installed onto vent hatches of proppant storage trailers.
|Method for improving light gauge building materials|
A process is described in which non-structural galvanized steel studs are sequentially chemically treated with a permanganate coating to improve oxidation resistance, followed by treatment with a silicate coating sealant, optionally with zinc surface activation using an acid treatment.. .
|Nano-leucite for slow release nitrogen fertilizer and green environment|
To compete with the increasing global food demand, it is necessary to increase the food production. Fertilizers which are in practice now a days has major disadvantage that 50% of nutrient contents loss due to leaching and also leads to ground water contamination.
|Methods for improving the flowability of asphalt particles|
The flowability of asphalt particles may be improved by mixing the particles with comprises further compound comprises portland cement, calcium aluminate cement, fly ash, blast furnace slag, lime/silica blends, silica, ground limestone, cement kiln dust, chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, zeolites, geopolymers, cellulose, starch, calcium carbonate, colloidal silica, aluminosilicates, and combinations thereof. Treating the asphalt particles with at least one of these compounds inhibits caking during storage and enhances transportability..
|Transdermal dosage form for low-melting point active agent|
The hydrophobic reservoir layer may serve as a skin-contacting adhesive layer. Alternatively, a release-controlling adhesive layer may serve as the skin-contacting adhesive layer.
|Rubber composition and pneumatic tire|
Provided are: a rubber composition that improves fuel economy and wet grip performance together while maintaining the balance between them; and a pneumatic tire whose component (in particular tread) includes the rubber composition. The invention relates to a rubber composition containing: a rubber component containing a copolymer; silica; and a diene rubber gel bearing a hydroxyl group, wherein the copolymer is obtained by copolymerization of 1,3-butadiene, styrene, and a compound represented by formula (i) below, has an amino group at a first chain end and a functional group containing at least one atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and silicon at a second chain end, and has a weight average molecular weight of 1.0×105-2.5×106, and the diene rubber gel has a tg of −40 to −10° c., and is present in an amount of 10-30 parts by mass per 100 parts by mass of the rubber component;.
|Method for producing rubber composition|
The present invention provides a method for producing a rubber composition containing a rubber component (a) that contains a modified conjugated diene-based polymer obtained by using a modifying agent that has a functional group compatible with silica, a filler containing an inorganic filler (b), a silane coupling agent (c), and at least one promoter (d) selected from guanidines, sulfenamides, thiazoles, thiurams, thioureas, dithiocarbamic acid compounds and xanthogenic acid compounds, wherein the rubber composition is kneaded in plural stages, and in the first stage (x) of kneading, the rubber component (a), all or a part of the inorganic filler (b), all or a part of the silane coupling agent (c) and the promoter (d) are added and kneaded.. .
|Surface modified silica by alkyl sulfonated tetrazole compound, preparing method thereof, and resin composition containing the same|
This invention relates to a surface modified silica by an alkyl sulfonated tetrazole compound, a preparation method thereof, and a resin composition containing the same. The silica according to this invention can exhibit superior adhesion to a metal..
|Controlling a release of a cleaning agent with silica particles|
Compositions and apparatus are provided for controlling a release of a cleaning agent with silica particles. Silica particles disposed within the gel composition and are configured to at least partially dissolve in an alkaline environment.
|Treated geothermal brine compositions with reduced concentrations of silica, iron and manganese|
This invention relates to treated geothermal brine compositions containing reduced concentrations of iron, silica, and manganese compared to the untreated brines. Exemplary compositions contain a concentration of manganese less than 10 mg/kg, a concentration of silica ranging from less than 10 mg/kg, and a concentration of iron less than 10 mg/kg, and the treated geothermal brine is derived from a salton sea geothermal reservoir..
|Functionalized silicate nanoparticle composition, removing and exfoliating asphaltenes with same|
Removing an asphaltene particle from a substrate includes contacting a silicate nanoparticle with a chemical group to form a functionalized silicate nanoparticle, the chemical group includes a first portion; and a second portion comprising an aromatic moiety, the first portion being bonded to the silicate nanoparticle; contacting the asphaltene particle with the functionalized silicate nanoparticle, the asphaltene particle being disposed on the substrate; interposing the functionalized silicate nanoparticle between the asphaltene particle and the substrate; and separating the asphaltene particle from the substrate with the functionalized silicate nanoparticle to remove the asphaltene particle. A composition includes a functionalized silicate nanoparticle comprising a reaction product of a silicate nanoparticle and an aromatic compound; and a fluid.
|Preparation of silica-alumina composition|
(z) recovering a precipitate solid from the mixture obtained in step (y) to obtain a silica-alumina composition containing of from 30 to 70% wt silica and of from 70 to 30% wt of alumina.. .
|Polishing agent and polishing method|
A non-oxide single-crystal substrate such as a silicon carbide single-crystal substrate is polished at a high polishing rate, whereby a smooth surface is obtained. There is provided a polishing agent containing: an oxidant that contains a transition metal and has a redox potential of 0.5 v or more; silica particles that have an average secondary particle size of 0.2 μm or less; and a dispersion medium, wherein a content ratio of the oxidant is not less than 0.25 mass % nor more than 5 mass %, and a content ratio of the silica particles is not less than 0.01 mass % and less than 20 mass %..