|| List of recent Polynomial-related patents
| System and method for accelerating evaluation of functions|
A system and method for accelerating evaluation of functions. In one embodiment, a method includes receiving, by a processor, a value to be processed, and notification of a function to be applied to the value.
| Method and computerproduct for modeling the sound emission and propagation of systems over a wide frequency range|
Prediction of emission by a source of sound and a propagation of the sound within a surrounding medium, over a frequency range is provided. A system including the source and the surrounding medium is represented by elements e.
|Link aggregator with universal packet scrambler apparatus and method|
Apparatus and methods are presented for using configurable additive data scrambling or descrambling circuitry for multichannel link aggregators in which a scrambler or descrambler polynomial is specified by binary data in a programmable register, and the polynomial data is used to compute a polynomial matrix. A scrambler or descrambler pattern is computed according to the polynomial matrix, and input data is bitwise exclusive-ored with the computed scrambler or descrambler pattern to generate scrambled or descrambled output data.
|Secure original equipment manufacturer (oem) identifier for oem devices|
An authorized information handling system (ihs) generates unique identifier codes for an oem (programmable) device designed as a component for an ihs. An identifier generation and validation (igv) controller in the authorized ihs generates a unique encrypted sequence by encrypting identification (id) data read from the oem device.
|Surface patch techniques for computational geometry|
A method and system for computer aided design (cad) is disclosed for designing geometric objects, wherein interpolation and/or blending between such objects is performed while deformation data is being input. Thus, a designer obtains immediate feedback to input modifications without separately entering a command(s) for performing such deformations.
|Rendering a 3d shape|
A method for rendering a three-dimensional (3d) shape, including: obtaining an electronic document (ed) specifying the 3d shape; generating a two-dimensional (2d) polygon by projecting the 3d shape onto a 2d plane; selecting multiple control points on a surface of the 3d shape; calculating multiple normal vectors orthogonal to the surface at the multiple control points; determining multiple coordinates by projecting the multiple control points onto the 2d plane; fitting a polynomial based on at least the multiple coordinates and the normal vectors; applying a 3d lighting effect to the 2d polygon based on the polynomial; and outputting the 2d polygon with the 3d lighting effect.. .
|Mapping between program states and data patterns|
The present disclosure includes methods and apparatuses for mapping between program states and data patterns. One method includes: programming a group of g memory cells such that a combination of respective program states of the group maps to a constellation point corresponding to a received n unit data pattern, the group used to store n/g units of data per memory cell; wherein the constellation point is one of a number of constellation points of a constellation associated with mapping respective program state combinations of the group of memory cells to n unit data patterns; and wherein the constellation comprises a first mapping shell and a second mapping shell, the constellation points corresponding to the respective first and second mapping shells determined, at least partially, based on a polynomial expression of order equal to g..
|Image processing apparatus, image processing method and program|
There is provided an image processing apparatus which calculates a feature value of an image. The apparatus comprises first obtaining means for obtaining an image; calculation means for calculating a set of numerical values formed from degrees of contributions of each of a plurality of order, wherein the degree of contributions of each order indicate contributions of monomials of the order for intensity values which are calculated using an approximation polynomial, and wherein the approximation polynomial provides a relationship between a pixel position of the image and an intensity value at the pixel position and is formed from a plurality of the monomials each having an order out of the plurality of orders; and first output means for outputting the set of the calculated numerical values as the feature value of the image..
|Method for designing laser-light-shaping optical component, method for producing laser-light-shaping optical component, and laser-light-shaping optical system|
A method for designing an optical component for shaping laser light according to one embodiment of this invention measures the intensity distribution of an incident laser light, obtains the shapes in the short and long axial directions of a pair of aspheric lenses for each of the short and long axial directions of the incident laser light from the measured intensity distribution of the incident laser light and a desired intensity distribution, performs approximation of a high-order polynomial of the shapes in the short and long axial directions of the pair of aspheric lenses, corrects the high-order polynomials for the short or long axial directions using a correction factor, and obtains the shapes of the pair of aspheric lenses on the basis of the corrected high-order polynomials.. .
|Low complexity digital predistortion for concurrent multi-band transmitters|
Systems and methods are disclosed for digital predistortion for a concurrent multi-band transmitter using a single adaptor and a same set of predistortion coefficients for separate digital predistorters for each band. In one embodiment, the single adaptor is configured to adaptively configure a set of predistortion coefficients based on a memory polynomial digital baseband model of the digital predistorters having a same set of predistortion coefficients for each of the digital predistorters.
|Preventing unauthorized calls to a protected function|
An obfuscated program can be configured to resist attacks in which an attacker directly calls a non-entry function by verifying that an execution path to the function is an authorized execution path. To detect an unauthorized execution order, a secret value is embedded in each function along an authorized execution path.
|Method and system for building at least one aircraft guideline in an airport navigation network|
This building method concerns building of at least one aircraft guideline in an airport navigation network. The navigation network includes a plurality of polygons and is associated with an airport area including taxiways, each guideline connecting two distinct sides of a corresponding polygon, the navigation network being configured to be stored in a memory of a computer system.
|Computing device, computing method, and computer program product|
According to an embodiment, a computing device includes an input unit and a power computing unit. The input unit is configured to input, in a form of vector representation, an element of an algebraic torus selected from elements of an m-th (m is an integer of 2 or greater) degree extension field obtained by extending a finite filed by an m-th order polynomial.
|Third-order polynomial-based course prediction for driver assistance functions|
Methods and systems for performing vehicle driver assistance. One method includes determining, at a controller, whether the vehicle is steering toward a drive-straight state and when the vehicle is steering toward the drive-straight state, calculating, at the controller, a predicted course trajectory using a third order polynomial.
|Method for transmitting data frame in wireless local area network and apparatus for the same|
A wireless device of transmitting a data frame in a wlan is provided. The wireless device includes: a mac unit generating a data frame; a phy unit transmitting a wireless signal of the data frame; and a processor being operably coupled to the mac unit and the phy unit and controlling a set of txvector parameters.
|Encoding method, encoder, and decoder|
A low-density parity check convolution code (ldpc-cc) is made, and a signal sequence is sent after being subjected to an error-correcting encodement using the low-density parity check convolution code. In this case, a low-density parity check code of a time-variant period (3g) is created by linear operations of first to 3g-th (letter g designates a positive integer) parity check polynomials and input data..
|System, method and program for estimating risk of disaster in infrastructure|
Method, system and computer program for estimating risk of a future disaster of an infrastructure. Times of previous, respective disasters of the infrastructure are identified.
|Configurable and low power encoder for cyclic error correction codes|
A method for encoding includes receiving input data symbols to be encoded with an error correction code (ecc) so as to produce a code word of the ecc including redundancy symbols. The input data symbols are applied first and second processing stages, such that the first processing stage performs a first polynomial division by a fixed-coefficient polynomial with a first degree of parallelism, and the second processing stage performs a second polynomial division by a configurable-coefficient polynomial with a second degree of parallelism that is smaller than the first degree of parallelism, so as to jointly produce the redundancy symbols..
|Cryptography on an elliptical curve|
A cryptographic calculation includes obtaining a point p(x,y) from a parameter t on an elliptical curve y2=f(x); and from polynomials x1(t), x2(t), x3(t) and u(t) satisfying: f(x1(t))·f(x2(t))·f(x3(t))=u(t)2 in fq, with q=3 mod 4. Firstly a value of the parameter t is obtained.
|Cryptography on a simplified elliptical curve|
A cryptographic calculation includes obtaining a point p(x,y) from a parameter t on an elliptical curve y2=f(x) and from polynomials satisfying: −f(x1(t)).f(x2(t))=u(t)2 in the finite body fq, irrespective of the parameter t, q=3 mod 4. A value of the parameter t is obtained and the point p is determined by: (i) calculating x1=x1(t), x2=x2(t) and u=u(t); (ii) testing whether the term f(x−1) is a squared term in the finite body fq and, if so, calculating the square root of the term f(x1), the point p having x1 as abscissa and y1, the square root of the term f(x1), as ordinate; (iii) otherwise, calculating the square root of the term f(x2), the point p having x2, as abscissa and y2, the square root of the term f(x2), as ordinate.
|Non-linear modeling of a physical system using look-up table with polynomial interpolation|
Methods and apparatus are provided for non-linear modeling of a physical system using look-up tables with polynomial interpolation. A non-linear function is evaluated for a complex input value by obtaining at least one look-up table with polynomial interpolation that represents the non-linear function, wherein entries in the look-up table comprise polynomial coefficients of at least degree two for different segments of the non-linear function; obtaining a point from the look-up table that is near a magnitude of the complex input value; and generating a complex output value by evaluating the polynomial coefficients at the point to perform a taylor series expansion from said point.
|Non-linear interference cancellation for wireless transceivers|
Non-linear interference cancellation techniques are provided for wireless transceivers. Non-linear reduction of interference of a transmit signal on a received signal in a transceiver device, comprises applying the transmit signal to a first non-linear system; applying the received signal to a second non-linear system; and subtracting an output of the first non-linear system output from an output of second non-linear system output to produce an interference mitigated received signal.
|Method for generating compact representations of spike timing-dependent plasticity curves|
A method generates compact representations of spike timing-dependent plasticity (stdp) curves. The method includes segmenting a set of data points into different sections.
|Signal segmentation method and crc attachment method for reducing undetected error|
The present invention provides for applying a cyclic redundancy check (crc) to a data signal. The present invention includes attaching a first crc to a first data signal block having a first length, segmenting the first data signal block attached with the first crc into a plurality of second data signal blocks having a length shorter than the first length, respectively generating a second crc for each second data signal block, and attaching the generated second crc to the respective second data signal block.
|Charged particle beam writing apparatus and method for acquiring dose modulation coefficient of charged particle beam|
A apparatus includes a unit to operate a first dose of a beam corrected for a proximity effect for each of second mesh regions of a second mesh size obtained by dividing the first mesh size by a product of a natural number and a number of passes, by using a dose model using a dose threshold; a unit to operate a representative temperature rising due to heat transfer originating from irradiation of the beam by using a dose for an applicable pass of the first dose and a unit to operate a polynomial having a term obtained by multiplying a dose modulation coefficient based on the representative temperature by a pattern area density as an element, and a dose that makes a difference between a value obtained by operating the polynomial and the dose threshold within a tolerance is used.. .
|Privacy preserving knowledge and factor possession tests for persistent authentication|
Example implementations described herein are directed to authentication based on the user's private factors, while not revealing at the server side information allowing the server (or anyone with the server's information) to deduce the private answers. In example implementations, the user answers a questionnaire with authentication factors, wherein the answers are transformed in a one-way fashion and the transformed answers are provided to the server side.
|Error and erasure decoding apparatus and method|
Embodiments of apparatus and methods for decoding errors and erasures are described. A codeword may have errors and erasures.
|Biometric authentication method and computer system|
A biometric authentication method for a computer system, the computer system comprising: a computer; and an authentication server, the biometric authentication method including steps of: extracting a first feature from the captured biometric information; generating a template polynomial for enrollment; extracting a second feature from the captured biometric information; generating a template polynomial for authentication; generating a correlation function for calculating a correlation between the template polynomial for authentication and the enrolled template polynomial; calculating a correlation value between the template polynomial for authentication and the enrolled template polynomial by using the generated correlation function, and determining based on the calculated correlation value whether or not the biometric information at the time of authentication coincides with the biometric information enrolled.. .
|System and method for generating a parallel processing approximation model|
A parallel processing approximation model is automatically generated via a method including generating a time complexity search table including a plurality of columns and rows, each header of the column defining a polynomial which defines the algorithmic time complexity or overhead time complexity, and each row within the column defining the respective polynomial for a plurality of dataset divisions or size multiplications. The method further includes generating a comparison column and determining an approximation column having the highest algorithmic time complexity values that do not exceed the time complexity comparison column..
|Quadrature error correction using polynominal models in tone calibration|
One example embodiment provides a system, apparatus, and method for using polynomial models in tone calibration for quadrature error correction in i/q receivers. In one example embodiment, method for calibrating an i/q receiver is provided and includes receiving a first mismatch parameter indicating a mismatch between i and q channels of the i/q receiver; and estimating a second mismatch parameter from the first mismatch parameter using a polynomial model..
|Ultra-wideband frequency position modulation using nonlinear compressed sensing|
A frequency position modulation system for encoding signals for transmission. A signal's discrete frequency support is used to represent symbols.
|Determination of optimum threshold voltage to read data values in memory cells|
An adaptive search scheme leads to threshold voltages that have lower bit error rates over initial values. An initial reference voltage is used and data is measured for set steps in voltage about the initial value sufficient to fit a polynomial curve.
|Reducing electromagnetic radiation emitted from high-speed interconnects|
Systems and methods reduce electromagnetic interference from high speed data carried by wired interconnects with a radio receiver for at least one protected radio frequency band. A spectral encoder changes the encoding of the high speed data to modify its frequency spectrum and reduce its spectral in the protected frequency band.
|Power amplifier system including a composite digital predistorter|
A power amplifier system including a composite digital predistorter (dpd) ensuring optimized linearity for the power amplifier is described. In this system, a digital-to-analog converter (dac), an analog filter, a first mixer, and the power amplifier are serially coupled to the composite dpd.
|De-correlating training pattern sequences between lanes in high-speed multi-lane links and interconnects|
Methods, apparatus and systems for de-correlating training pattern sequences for high-speed links and interconnects. The high-speed links and interconnects employs multiple lanes in each direction for transmitting and receiving data, and may be physically implemented via signal paths in an inter-plane board such as a backplane or mid-plane, or via a cable.
|Ophthalmic systems and related methods|
Systems and methods for modifying an eye including a light source with light elements, a photodetector producing a signal representing images of the light elements and corresponding to locations on an ocular surface, an optical system directing light from the light elements reflected by the ocular surface onto the photodetector, a memory including code for processing the signal, and a processor for executing the code and outputting shape data for use in calculating a treatment plan for the eye. The code includes instructions for determining the shape data based on a combination of zonal reconstruction and polynomial fitting using the plurality of images..
|Asynchronous to synchronous sampling using modified akima algorithm|
A method, comprising: selecting two two-tuples before and two after a selected synchronous adc conversion point; calculating the coefficients of a third order polynomial based on the value of the previous time asynchronous sample, the time differences between each of the asynchronous samples surrounding the selected sample, and the three linear slopes of the line segments between the two points before and the points after the selected synchronous sample point, including the slope of the selected point; evaluating the third order polynomial at the synchronous time instant; generating the synchronous adc value based on this calculation; and using the adc value as the desired voltage level of the synchronous sample, wherein the synchronous adc value is generated based on this calculation.. .
|Asynchronous to synchronous sampling using akima algorithm|
A method, comprising: selecting three two-tuples before and three after a selected synchronous adc conversion point; calculating the coefficients of a third order polynomial based on the value of the previous time asynchronous sample, the time difference between the asynchronous samples surrounding the selected sample, and the five linear slopes of the line segments between the three points before and the points after the selected synchronous sample point, including the slope of the selected point; evaluating the third order polynomial at the synchronous time instant; generating the synchronous adc value based on this calculation; and using the adc value as the desired voltage level of the synchronous sample, wherein the synchronous adc value is generated based on this calculation.. .
According to one embodiment, a semiconductor memory includes a memory cell unit, an encoding circuit that generates a first parity and a second parity for data, and a decoding circuit that performs error correction by using the data, the first parity, and the second parity, the first parity is generated by using a first generation polynomial for the data, the second parity is generated by using a second generation polynomial for the input data and the first parity, the second generation polynomial is selected based on the first generation polynomial, the data and the first parity is output to the outside, and the second parity is not output to the outside.. .
|Memory controller, storage device and memory control method|
According to one embodiment, a memory controller includes an encoding unit that executes an error correction coding process on input-data and generates a code word, a calculation control unit that controls whether to execute a multiplication calculation of a multiplication circuit, and a memory interface unit that controls writing of the code word to the memory and reading of the code word from the memory, and the encoding unit includes a remainder circuit that performs a remainder calculation on the input-data using a first generator polynomial and generates a first code word having a first error correction capability and a first multiplication circuit that performs a multiplication calculation on the first code word using a second generator polynomial and performs a multiplication calculation of generating a second code word having a second error correction capability.. .
|Measurement of dc offsets in iq modulators|
Described are systems and methods of determining dc offset voltages in iq modulators. First, two different dc test voltages are selected for one of the inputs to the iq modulator.
|Method of synchronizing a communication system|
A method of synchronizing a time division duplex (tdd) multi-line, multi-carrier data communication system is provided. Synchronization is established using unique pseudo-random bit sequences (prbs) from a common generator polynomial having different seed values.
|Instruction-set architecture for programmable cyclic redundancy check (crc) computations|
A method and apparatus to perform cyclic redundancy check (crc) operations on a data block using a plurality of different n-bit polynomials is provided. A flexible crc instruction performs a crc operation using a programmable n-bit polynomial.
|Ldpc design for high parallelism, low error floor, and simple encoding|
A method of data encoding is disclosed. An encoder receives a set of information bits and performs an ldpc encoding operation on the set of information bits to produce a codeword based on a matched lifted ldpc code.
|Dual composite field advanced encryption standard memory encryption engine|
A different set of polynomials may be selected for encryption and decryption accelerators. That is, different sets of polynomials are used for encryption and decryption, each set being chosen to use less area and deliver more power for a memory encryption engine.
|Automatic computer program obfuscation system|
A computer program obfuscating system including a processor to provide a computer program including at least one computer program variable, and add an opaque predicate to the computer program to obfuscate the computer program so that the opaque predicate added to the computer program comprises at least one polynomial including a polynomial p, during execution of the obfuscated computer program, the polynomial p is evaluated yielding at least one result including a first result r1, and during execution of the obfuscated computer program, the opaque predicate is evaluated based on the at least one result r1 such that a decision as to whether or not to perform the first command is dependent upon comparing the first result r1 to at least one value in accordance with a predetermined mathematical relationship. Related apparatus and methods are also included..
|Method for the radiological investigation of an object|
A method of identifying the material content of an object comprises: providing a radiation source and a radiation detector; irradiating a test object with radiation from the source; collecting at the detector system intensity data for radiation emergent from the test object; resolving the intensity data spectroscopically between a plural set of energy bands; numerically processing the spectroscopically resolved intensity data via the following steps: considering a material attenuation coefficient as a plural set of energy dependent polynomial equations in atomic number with a set of energy dependent coefficients across the said plural set of energy bands; determining a measured attenuation coefficient at each said energy band; calculating therefrom one or more orders of compound proton number and/or effective mass thickness and/or density and for example a compound proton number set comprising plural order powers and preferably plural higher order powers of weighted compound atomic number.. .
|Adaptive soft-output detector for magnetic tape read channels|
In one embodiment, a method includes passing a signal through an adaptive noise whitening filter, wherein one or more noise whitening coefficients used in the noise whitening filter are updated using a noise whitening filter coefficient updater, wherein the noise whitening filter is configured to process the signal according to a transfer polynomial: w(d)=1−(p1d+ . .
|Adaptive soft-output detector for magnetic tape read channels|
In one embodiment, a method includes passing a signal through a noise whitening filter, passing the signal through a soft detector to calculate first soft information, passing the signal through the soft decoder to calculate second soft information based on the first soft information, and sending the second soft information to the soft detector, wherein the noise whitening filter is configured to process the signal according to the following transfer polynomial: w(d)=1−(p1d+ . .
|Signature verification apparatus, signature verification method, program, and recording medium|
A signature verification apparatus including a signature acquisition unit configured to acquire a digital signature including first information generated based on a pair of multi-order multivariate polynomials f=(f1, . .
|Math circuit for estimating a transcendental function|
A math circuit for computing an estimate of a transcendental function is described. A lookup table storage circuit has stored therein several groups of binary values, where each group of values represents a respective coefficient of a first polynomial that estimates the function to a high precision.
|Modified orthogonal polynomials based hybrid coded-modulation for multi-tb/second optical transport|
A system and method for transmitting data, including one or more low density parity check (ldpc) encoders configured to encode one or more streams of input data; a signal constellation generation module configured to generate one or more signal constellations; one or more modulators configured to generate one or more signals using hybrid multidimensional coded modulation; a modified orthogonal polynomial generation module configured to generate modified orthogonal polynomials for use as electrical basis functions; and one or more mode-multiplexers and transmitters configured to mode-multiplex and transmit one or more ldpc-coded data streams over a transmission medium.. .
|High na (numerical aperture) rectangular field euv catoptric projection optics using tilted and decentered zernike polynomial mirror surfaces|
A catoptric system for euv lithography includes six freeform reflective surfaces that are specified based on fringe zernike polynomials. Each of the surfaces is tilted and/or decentered in a meridian plane and with respect to a common axis so that image and object planes are parallel.
|Transmission apparatus and transmission method|
An encoding method and encoder of a time-varying ldpc-cc with high error correction performance are provided. In an encoding method of performing low density parity check convolutional coding (ldpc-cc) of a time varying period of q using a parity check polynomial of a coding rate of (n−1)/n (where n is an integer equal to or greater than 2), the time varying period of q is a prime number greater than 3, the method receiving an information sequence as input and encoding the information sequence using equation 1 as a g-th (g=0, 1, .
|Information processing apparatus, information processing method, and program|
Provided an information processing apparatus including a number generation unit configured to generate numbers used in coefficients of terms included in a pair of multi-order multivariate polynomials f=(f1, . .
|Information processing apparatus, signature generation apparatus, signature verification apparatus, information processing method, signature generation method, and signature verification method|
Provided is an information processing apparatus including a message generation unit configured to generate a message based on a pair of quadratic multivariate polynomials f=(f1, . .
|Information processing apparatus and information processing method|
Provided is an information processing apparatus including a message generating unit that generates a message based on a multi-order multivariate polynomial set f=(f1, . .
|Information processing apparatus, information processing method, program, and recording medium|
Provided is an information processing apparatus including a message generating unit that generates messages of n times (where n≧2) based on a multi-order multivariate polynomial set f=(f1, . .
|Systems and methods for 3d data based navigation using a watershed method|
Systems and methods for 3d data based navigation using a watershed method are provided. In at least one embodiment, a method for segmenting three-dimensional frames of data comprises acquiring at least one frame from at least one sensor, wherein the at least one frame provides a three-dimensional description of an environment containing the at least one sensor; and identifying a surface in the at least one frame.
|Polynomial phases for multi-carrier modulation schemes with time domain windowing|
In one aspect, a method includes performing a mapping on bits to form a complex data symbol, applying a frequency rotation mask to the complex data symbol based on a polynomial phase, performing an inverse discrete fourier transform (idft) after applying the frequency rotation mask, applying a time domain window after performing the idft, converting digital data to analog data after applying the time window and transmitting the analog data as an analog signal.. .
|Bose-chaudhuri-hocquenghem (bch) decoder|
A decoder for decoding a set of bits encoded using a bose-chaudhuri-hocquenghem (bch) error-correcting code (ecc) includes a syndrome generator, a key equation solver, and an error bit locator. The syndrome generator receives the set of encoded bits and generates a set of syndromes.
|Prosody generation using syllable-centered polynomial representation of pitch contours|
The present invention discloses a parametrical representation of prosody based on polynomial expansion coefficients of the pitch contour near the center of each syllable. The said syllable pitch expansion coefficients are generated from a recorded speech database, read from a number of sentences by a reference speaker.
|Displacement detecting device and scale|
A scale has marks whose pitch interval changes along a measurement direction in a manner that can be approximated to a quadratic or higher-order polynomial. A comparing unit calculates a difference between first relative position information and second relative position information per unit displacement in a position where a first displacement detecting unit is arranged.
|Information processing apparatus, signature generation apparatus, information processing method, signature generation method, and program|
Provided is an information processing apparatus including a random number generation unit configured to generate a pair of random numbers from a seed, a message generation unit configured to generate a message based on a pair of multi-order multivariate polynomials f=(f1, . .
|Three-dimensional positioning method|
A three-dimensional positioning method includes establishing the geometric model of optical and radar sensors, obtaining rational function conversion coefficient, refining the rational function model and positioning the three-dimensional coordinates. Most of the radar satellite companies and part of the optical satellite only provide satellite ephemeris data, rather than the rational function model.
|Nformation processing apparatus, signature generation apparatus, information processing method, signature generation method, and program|
Provided is an information processing apparatus including a message generation unit that generates a message based on a pair of multi-order multivariate polynomials f=(f1, . .
|Optimizing a partition in data deduplication|
For optimizing a partition of a data block into matching and non-matching segments in data deduplication using a processor device in a computing environment, an optimal calculation operation is applied in polynomial time to the matching segments for selecting a globally optimal subset of a set of matching segments according to overhead considerations for minimizing an overall size of a deduplicated file by determining a trade off between a time complexity and a space complexity.. .
|Encryption processing apparatus and method|
A device that uses homomorphic encryption is disclosed. The device obtains a first encrypted polynomial, a second encrypted polynomial, a first encrypted weight, and a second encrypted weight by respectively encrypting a first polynomial, a second polynomial, a first weight, and a second weight by using a homomorphic encryption scheme, and obtains an encrypted secure distance corresponding to encryption of a secure distance..
|Inspection methods, inspection apparatuses, and lithographic apparatuses|
A method for determining overlay error includes measuring asymmetry of radiation reflected from each of a plurality of targets on a substrate. The plurality of targets include a predetermined overlay offset.