This page is updated frequently with new Polarity-related patent applications.
|Control system of a balanced micro-pulsed ionizer blower|
In one embodiment of the invention, a method of automatically balancing ionized air stream created in bipolar corona discharge is provided. The method comprises: providing an air moving device with at least one ion emitter and reference electrode connected to a micro-pulsed ac power source, and a control system with at least one ion balance monitor and corona discharge adjustment control; generating variable polarity groups of short duration ionizing micro-pulses: wherein said micro-pulses are predominantly asymmetric in amplitude and duration of both polarity voltages and have a magnitude of at least one polarity ionizing pulses exceed the corona threshold..
Illinois Tool Works Inc.
|Visual special effect image or video pair and generation therefor|
Disclosed are a method and device for generating a visual special effect image or video pair. The method mainly comprises: at least modifying the brightness of at least one region of an image or video of at least one view, so that the polarity of brightness contrast of the region in the view to perimeter regions is opposite to the polarity of brightness contrast of a corresponding region in the other view to the perimeter regions, and the absolute value of the difference between the brightness contrast of the region in the view to the perimeter regions and the brightness contrast of a corresponding region in the other view to the perimeter regions is greater than a critical value; and obtaining a new image or video pair.
|Rotating electrical machine and elevator|
According to one embodiment, a rotating electrical machine includes an annular winding, l (l is an arbitrary integer) stator magnetic poles, and l rotor magnetic poles having the same polarity. The l stator magnetic poles are disposed apart from each other in a rotational direction and facing the winding.
Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
|Rotary power generating apparatus and electric generating apparatus|
Obtaining of a secure reciprocation of piston magnets and enhance the continuity to obtain a continuous rotary power. The rotary power generating apparatus has the first, second piston magnet members the first, second connecting rods the crankshaft, the first, second guide members and the first, second fixed magnet members and it has the first, second demagnetizing member including demagnetizing rotating boards respectively.
|Rotary power generating apparatus and electric generating apparatus|
Obtaining of a secure reciprocation of piston magnets and enhance the continuity to obtain a continuous rotary power. The rotary power generating apparatus has the first, second piston magnet members, the crankshaft, the first, second guide members, and the first, second fixed magnet members and the first, second demagnetizing rotary drums respectively having the first, second demagnetizing cylindrical bodies.
|Electrode stack structure and battery having electrode stack structure|
An electrode stack structure including a plurality of stacked electrode layers including electrode layers having multiple tabs, wherein the multiple tabs include a first tab connected to a first lead; and a second tab that is spaced apart from the first tab, and wherein second tabs of electrode layers having a same polarity are electrically connected to each other.. .
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
|Amplifiers including tunable tunnel field effect transistor pseudo resistors and related devices|
Neural signal amplifiers include an operational amplifier and a feedback network coupled between an output and an input thereof. The feedback network includes a tunnel field effect transistor (“tfet”) pseudo resistor that exhibits bi-directional conductivity.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
|Integrated circuit composed of tunnel field-effect transistors and manufacturing same|
The present invention provides an integrated circuit formed of tunneling field-effect transistors that includes a first tunneling field-effect transistor in which one of a first p-type region and a first n-type region operates as a source region and the other one operates as a drain region; and a second tunneling field-effect transistor in which one of a second p-type region and a second n-type region operates as a source region and the other one operates as a drain region, the first and second tunneling field-effect transistors being formed in one active region to have the same polarity, the first p-type region and the second n-type region being formed adjacently, the adjacent first p-type region and second n-type region being electrically connected through metal semiconductor alloy film.. .
National Institute Of Advanced Industrial Science And Technology
A semiconductor device for driving a load includes: a protection circuit configured to be connected to the load, the protection circuit including a protection diode, a diode-connected unipolar protection element, and a diode-connected bipolar protection element, all of which are connected in parallel so that when connected to the load, the protection diode, the diode-connected unipolar protection element, and the diode-connected bipolar protection element are connected in parallel to the load; and a switching circuit that is connected in series to the protection circuit and that performs a switching operation so as to drive the load. The protection diode, the diode-connected unipolar protection element, and the diode-connected bipolar protection element are connected in such a polarity that each is reverse-biased when the switching circuit is turned on, and consume a discharge current resulting from a counter-electromotive force from the load when the switching circuit is turned off..
Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
|Magnetic tape medium with magnetically encoded servo band bursts|
A magnetic tape medium includes at least one servo band along a longitudinal extension of the tape medium which at least one servo band comprises servo patterns organized in servo frames for supporting to determine positional information. At least one of the servo frames includes a first burst comprising at least two servo stripes inclined at a first angle with respect to a direction orthogonal to the longitudinal extension of the tape medium, followed by a second burst including at least two servo stripes inclined at a second angle with respect to a direction orthogonal to the longitudinal extension of the tape medium, which second angle is different from the first angle.
International Business Machines Corporation
Discharge lamp driving device, projector, and discharge lamp driving method
In an aspect of a discharge lamp driving device, the controller is configured to supply a driving current to a discharge lamp, the driving current alternately having a first period and a second period. The first period includes a plurality of consecutive first unit driving periods each of which is constituted of a first polarity period and a second polarity period.
Seiko Epson Corporation
Polarity turn-around time of social media posts
The technology disclosed solves the technical problem of measuring efficiency and effectiveness of online social engagements relating to user experience management. The technical solution disclosed herein entails offering a technical measure for user experience and satisfaction with the objective of converting online detractors into online promoters.
Portable electronic device including keyboard and controlling same
An electronic device includes a plurality of keycaps, first magnets disposed on an underside of the keycaps, each first magnet of the plurality of first magnets being associated with a respective one of the keycaps and moveable therewith relative to the back of the device, and electromagnets disposed between the back of the keyboard and the first magnets, each electromagnet being associated with a respective one of the first magnets and a respective one of the keycaps. The electronic device also includes a controller coupled to the electromagnets to control each electromagnet to maintain a magnetic field to repel the first magnet and to reverse the polarity in response to detecting an external applied force on the keycap that meets a threshold value to facilitate movement of the respective keycap from a first position, toward the back of the keyboard, to a second position..
Image forming apparatus
An image forming apparatus includes a control portion configured to perform a cleaning operation including: a first step of causing a developer, which has a reversed polarity and is attracted to a surface of a charging roller, to have a normal polarity under a state in which the developer bearing member is separated from the image bearing member with the contact/separation unit; and a second step of collecting the developer, which has the normal polarity and is attracted to the surface of the image bearing member, to the developer bearing member, by rotating the image bearing member and the developer bearing member under a state in which the developer bearing member is brought into contact with the image bearing member with the contact/separation unit after performing the first step.. .
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
Computer controlled automated safe to mate method and apparatus
A method of safe to mate testing includes providing a file of netlist signals where each signal defines a first connection to one or more components of a unit under test, connecting a first terminal of a measuring device to a first netlist signal and connecting a second terminal of the measuring device to a second netlist signal, performing a plurality of first resistive measurements by applying power having a first polarity between the first and second netlist signals, performing at least one second resistive measurement by applying power having a second polarity to the first and second netlist signals, and recording an average of the first resistive measurements and, if the second polarity measurement yields a negative result, an indication that a reactive load is connected between the first and second netlist signals.. .
U.s.a. As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration
Improvements in fibre optic distributed sensing
This application describes methods and apparatus for distributed fibre optic sensing that reduce or compensate for the effects of laser phase noise. The method involves repeatedly interrogating an optical fibre (101), where each interrogation involves launching at least one interrogating pulse into the optical fibre; detecting optical radiation which is backscattered from within the fibre, and forming a measurement signal from a plurality of sensing portions of the fibre.
Optasense Holdings Limited
Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor depth sensor element
A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor depth sensor element comprises a photogate formed in a photosensitive area on a substrate. A first transfer gate and a second transfer gate are formed respectively on two sides of the photogate in intervals.
Eminent Electronic Technology Corp. Ltd.
Diamond producing method and dc plasma enhanced cvd apparatus
Diamond is grown on a substrate (s) from a mixture of a carbon-containing gas and hydrogen gas, by a dc plasma enhanced cvd process of applying a dc voltage between a stage electrode (12) for holding the substrate (s) and a voltage-applying electrode (13). During the step of growing diamond by applying a dc voltage, a single pulse voltage of opposite polarity to the dc voltage for diamond growth is applied between the stage electrode and the voltage-applying electrode at a predetermined timing.
Shin-etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.
System and hot wire arc steering
The invention described herein generally pertains to a system and method related to influencing a direction of an arc within a welding operation. Within a hot wire welding operation, an arc is generated between an electrode and a workpiece and a welding wire is energized while being supplied to a puddle formed by the electrode in order to deposit the liquefied welding wire onto the workpiece.
Lincoln Global, Inc.
Electrode set and stimulating device
The electrode set for a stimulation device, such as a tens or ems stimulation device comprises at least a plurality of neighboring electrically active zones close to each other said active zones forming a succession of poles of alternating polarity or being grouped to form groups of poles of alternating polarity, wherein at least one of said active zone or group of zones has a lateral size (d2) of approximately 1 mm to 40 mm, wherein at least one of spacing (d1) between neighboring active zones or groups of zones is approximately of 1 mm to 40 mm, and said set further comprises contacting means connected to said active zones or groups of active zones.. .
Djo Global Switzerland Sarl
Dc power supply unit and air conditioner using same
A dc power supply unit is provided that allows for improving efficiency and reducing harmonic currents. A dc power supply unit includes: a bridge rectification circuit having diodes and mosfets; a reactor that is arranged between the ac power supply and the bridge rectifier circuit; a smoothing capacitor that is connected to an output side of the bridge rectifier circuit and smoothes a voltage; and a converter control unit that executes, based on predetermined threshold values, a diode rectification control that uses diodes and parasitic diodes of the mosfets, a synchronous rectification control that switches the mosfets in synchronization with a polarity of the voltage of the ac power supply, a partial switching control that repeats partially short-circuiting the reactor multiple times in a half cycle of the ac power supply, or a fast switching control that short-circuits the reactor at a predetermined frequency over a full ac cycle..
Hitachi Appliances, Inc.
Rotary power generating apparatus and electric generating apparatus
Obtaining of a secure reciprocation of piston magnets and enhance the continuity to obtain a continuous rotary power. The rotary power generating apparatus has the first, second piston magnet members the first, second connecting rods the crankshaft the first, second guide members and the first, second fixed magnet members and it has the demagnetizing member including the demagnetizing rotating board.
Magnetically aligned accessory to device connections
An accessory to device coupling system can include a first magnet array adapted for assembly with respect to a surface of an electronic device and a second magnet array adapted for assembly with respect to a surface of an accessory device, the accessory device configured to interact electrically with the electronic device. The first magnet array can include a first plurality of magnets arranged in a first pattern of alternating polarities, and the second magnet array can include a second plurality of magnets arranged in a second pattern of alternating polarities that corresponds to the first pattern of alternating polarities.
Organic light emitting device and manufacturing the same using thin film fabricating apparatus
A thin film fabricating apparatus includes an electrode part which sprays a thin film material as electrified spray particles, a substrate holder disposed facing the electrode part and holding a substrate to be provided with a thin film, and a mask disposed between the electrode part and the substrate holder and provided with a plurality of pattern grooves, where the mask and the substrate are applied with a mask voltage (vm) and a substrate voltage (v0), respectively, the mask voltage (vm) is a variable voltage, and the substrate voltage (v0) has the same polarity as the polarity of spray particles.. .
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Solar cell module and manufacturing the same
A solar cell module and a method for manufacturing the same are discussed. The solar cell module includes a plurality of solar cells each including a semiconductor substrate and first and second electrodes, each of which has a different polarity and is extended in a first direction on a back surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a plurality of conductive lines extended in a second direction crossing the first direction on the back surface of the semiconductor substrate, connected to one of the first and second electrodes through a conductive adhesive, and insulated from the other electrode by an insulating layer.
Lg Electronics Inc.
Semiconductor memory device and manufacturing the same
A semiconductor memory device according to an embodiment includes a substrate, a plurality of conductive members containing a metal and provided on the substrate, a stacked body provided in each region between the conductive members, a semiconductor pillar piercing the stacked body, a memory film and internal stress films. The plurality of conductive members extend in a first direction and are separated from each other in a second direction.
Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
Methods of forming diodes
Some embodiments include methods of forming diodes in which a first electrode is formed to have a pedestal extending upwardly from a base. At least one layer is deposited along an undulating topography that extends across the pedestal and base, and a second electrode is formed over the least one layer.
Micron Technology, Inc.
High-voltage transistor having shielding gate
A semiconductor device includes a plurality of high-voltage insulated-gate field-effect transistors arranged in a matrix form on the main surface of a semiconductor substrate and each having a gate electrode, a gate electrode contact formed on the gate electrode, and a wiring layer which is formed on the gate electrode contacts adjacent in a gate-width direction to electrically connect the gate electrodes arranged in the gate-width direction. And the device includes shielding gates provided on portions of an element isolation region which lie between the transistors adjacent in the gate-width direction and gate-length direction and used to apply reference potential or potential of a polarity different from that of potential applied to the gate of the transistor to turn on the current path of the transistor to the element isolation region..
Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
Electrostatic discharge protection circuit
In the disclosure, an electrostatic discharge (esd) protection circuit is coupled between a first power rail and a second power rail to discharge any esd stress. The esd protection circuit includes a detection circuit, a triggering circuit, and a dual silicon controlled rectifier (dscr) device.
Novatek Microelectronics Corp.
Non-volatile memory device
A nonvolatile memory device includes a conductive layer, a semiconductor layer extending in a first direction on the conductive layer, a first insulating layer provided between the conductive layer and the semiconductor layer, a word line extending in a second direction on the semiconductor layer, the second direction intersecting the first direction, a charge storage layer provided between the semiconductor layer and the word line, and a circuit electrically connected to the conductive layer. The circuit applies an electric potential to the conductive layer when programming data, the electric potential of the conductive layer having the same polarity as an electric potential of the word line..
Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
Liquid crystal display device and liquid crystal display method
According to one embodiment, a liquid crystal display device includes pixel electrodes including unit pixel electrodes, pixel circuits which apply a white-display voltage or a black-display voltage to the unit pixel electrodes, first and second polarity voltage lines being used in applying the white-display voltage and the black-display voltage to the pixel circuits, and a control unit which divides at least polarity voltage lines into a plurality of blocks, and supplies a polarity inversion signal to the polarity voltage lines to be subjected to polarity inversion driving, in units of one block, wherein the pixel circuits each include a pixel switch, a memory, and a polarity select unit which selects a voltage signal on one of the first and second polarity voltage lines in response to a binary image signal held by the memory.. .
Japan Display Inc.
Liquid crystal display and driving the same
A liquid crystal display includes a liquid crystal panel including a plurality of gate lines extending in a first direction, a plurality of data lines extending in a second direction crossing the first direction, and a plurality of pixels connected to the gate lines and the data lines, a gate driver configured to apply gate signals to the gate lines, a data driver configured to apply data voltages to the data lines, and a timing controller configured to receive a control signal and image data, to apply a gate control signal to the gate driver, and to apply a data control signal to the data driver, wherein the timing controller is further configured to determine whether to change a present polarity arrangement on a basis of a color ratio of the image data.. .
Samsung Display Co., Ltd.
System and annotating reviews
A system and method for analyzing reviews is disclosed herein. User-generated content (ugc) such as on-line reviews of products can be broken up in to different features of the products being reviewed.
Wal-mart Stores, Inc.
System and analyzing reviews to determine feature score
A system and method for calculating and displaying feature scores is disclosed herein. User generated content (ugc) such as on-line reviews can be used to generate a score for each feature of a product or service being reviewed.
Wal-mart Stores, Inc.
Touch sensor and touch sensing method
A touch sensor includes a panel including display pixels and sensing nodes, a touch-sensing block configured to sense a change in capacitance of the sensing nodes, and a timing controller configured to generate state information based on a polarity of data and/or an inflow of electrostatic discharge to the panel and/or a peripheral temperature and/or an on or off state of the panel. The touch-sensing block senses a presence or absence of a touch on or over the sensing nodes based on the state information and the change in capacitance of the sensing nodes..
Dongbu Hitek Co., Ltd.
Electrode system for electrical stimulation
A system for electrically stimulating a user comprising: a first housing portion defining an array of openings; an array of permeable bodies with portions exposed through the array of openings and wetted with a solution that facilitates electrical coupling between the system and a body region of the user, wherein each permeable body has a cavity at a proximal portion and a distal portion and is configured to transmit the solution to the body region of the user; a substrate region defining an array of protrusions configured to support the array of permeable bodies and composed of a conductive polymer; and a set of conductors in communication with the substrate region and including a first conductor that provides a first subset of the array of permeable bodies with a first polarity and a second conductor that provides a second subset of the array of permeable bodies with a second polarity.. .
Halo Neuro, Inc.
Methods and multi-catheter tissue ablation
Catheter systems, tools and methods are disclosed for the selective and rapid application of dc voltage to drive irreversible electroporation, with the system controller configurable to apply voltages to an independently selected subsets of electrodes, such that voltages of one polarity are applied to a multiplicity of electrodes on a first medical device and voltages of the opposite polarity to a multiplicity of electrodes on a second medical device. The first and second medical devices can be epicardial catheters positioned such that their opposing distal tips are approximately aligned and whose segments with electrodes collectively wrap around the pulmonary veins..
Iowa Approach Inc.
Image pickup apparatus and endoscope
An image pickup apparatus includes: a lens frame internally holding a movable lens, and including a magnet provided on an outer circumferential surface; a holding frame; and a magnetic member, in which the magnet includes a plurality of magnet pairs provided at uniform angles in a circumferential direction of the lens frame, each of the magnet pairs including magnets that are respectively disposed on distal end side and proximal end side along the optical axis direction of the movable lens, the magnet disposed on the distal end side has a polarity opposite in the radial direction to a polarity of the magnet disposed on the proximal end side, and the magnetic member is provided to face the magnets that configure one of the plurality of magnet pairs.. .
Attenuating an input signal
Apparatus (301) for switchable attenuation of a differential input signal from a microphone includes positive and negative non-attenuating paths (406, 410) have n- and p-type mosfets (421, 422, 423, 424) in back-to-back configurations; positive and negative attenuating paths (405, 409) have n- and p-type mosfets (415, 416, 418, 419) in back-to-back configurations in combination with resistors; a gate driver (425) applies a drive signal of one polarity (qneg) to gates of the n-type mosfets in the attenuating paths and the p-type mosfets in the non-attenuating paths, and a drive signal of opposite polarity (qpos) to the gates of the p-type mosfets in the attenuating paths and the n-type mosfets in the non-attenuating paths; and the state of the mosfets depends on the drive signals at their gates, and thus the input signal may be routed via either the non-attenuating paths or the attenuating paths by controlling the drive signals.. .
Red Lion 49 Limited
Techniques for optimizing the polarities of audio input channels
In one embodiment, a polarity optimizer determines optimal polarities of audio input channels. In operation, the polarity optimizer generates multiple polarity combinations, where each polarity combination specifies a different combination of polarities of the audio input channels.
Harman International Industries, Incorporated
Method of detecting external devices and electronic device for processing same
Disclosed are a method of recognizing an external device and an electronic device for processing the method. The electronic device may include a memory configured to store at least one earphone polarity information; and a processor electrically coupled to the memory, wherein the processor executing instructions stored in the memory is configured to detect an insertion of earphones into a connector of the electronic device, acquire a first polarity information stored in the memory, based on the first polarity information, set a sound path for inputting or outputting a sound to or from the electronic device, determine a second polarity information corresponding to the inserted earphones, determine whether the first polarity information is compatible with the second polarity information, and reset the sound path based on the second polarity information when the first polarity information is not compatible with the second polarity information..
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Spin torque mram fabrication using negative tone lithography and ion beam etching
A method for forming a memory device includes masking a photoresist material using a reticle and a developer having a polarity opposite that of the photoresist to provide an island of photoresist material. A planarizing layer is etched to establish a pillar of planarizing material defined by the island of photoresist material.
International Business Machines Corporation
Magnetoresistive random access memory cell and fabricating the same
A magnetoresistive random-access memory (mram) cell includes a free layer having a variable magnetic polarity, wherein the free layer has a first width; a pin layer having a fixed magnetic polarity, wherein the pin layer has the first width; a barrier layer located between the pin layer and the free layer, wherein the barrier layer has a second width that is less than the first width; a top electrode layer located above the free layer, the pin layer, and the barrier layer; a bottom electrode layer located beneath the free layer, the pin layer, and the barrier layer; and a capping layer encapsulating a sidewall of the barrier layer.. .
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
Electronic device and manufacturing thereof
An electronic device, includes: a graphene nanoribbon having a first graphene and a second graphene; a first electrode coupled to the first graphene; and a second electrode coupled to the second graphene, wherein the first graphene is terminated on an edge by a first terminal group and has a first polarity and the second graphene is terminated on an edge by a second terminal group different to the first terminal group and has a second polarity different from the first polarity.. .
Method for removing halogen and manufacturing semiconductor device
A method of removing a halogen includes performing a heating treatment on a halogen-containing film at a pressure higher than 1 atm and a temperature higher than 100 degrees c. In order to suppress a deterioration of the halogen-containing film while keeping an organic solvent, which is in a liquid phase and exhibits a polarity, in contact with a surface of the halogen-containing film..
Tokyo Electron Limited
Liquid crystal display
In one embodiment of the present invention, each pixel includes first and second subpixels. Cs bus lines connected to the respective storage capacitors of the first and second subpixels are electrically independent of each other.
Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
Rgbw tft lcd having reduced horizontal crosstalk
A tft array substrate for a tft lcd includes a plurality of pixels each consisting of a red sub-pixel, a green sub-pixel, a blue sub-pixel and a white sub-pixel arranged in a 2×2 matrix. Two data lines are located between each two neighboring columns of the sub-pixels.
Century Technology (shenzhen) Corporation Limited
System and a linear voltage regulator
According to an embodiment, a voltage regulator includes a linear voltage regulator (lvr) and a transient feedback circuit. The lvr a primary feedback loop, an input terminal configured to receive an input voltage, and an output terminal configured to output a regulated voltage.
Stmicroelectronics International N.v.
Electronic devices are disclosed. According to the present invention, an electronic device may comprise a base; a rotor rotating on the base; a first magnetic body positioned at a center of rotation of the rotor; a second magnetic body having a different polarity from the first magnetic body, facing the first magnetic body, and positioned in the base; a first plurality of magnetic bodies positioned around the second magnetic body and having at least two different polarities; a hall sensor embedded in the rotor and sensing a change in magnetic property provided from the first plurality of magnetic bodies according to the rotation of the rotor; a wireless communication unit embedded in the rotor or the base; and a controller embedded in the rotor or the base and transmitting information obtained by the hall sensor through the wireless communication unit..
Lg Electronics Inc.
A thinner composition includes propyleneglycol alkylether acetate, cycloketone, and methyl 2-hydroxy isobutyrate. The thinner composition has excellent ebr, rrc, and rework properties, as well as effects of improving photoresist application uniformity, and in particular, exhibiting excellent solubility to photoresist having a high polarity, so as to be applicable to various photoresists..
Dongwoo Fine-chem Co., Ltd.
Offset suppression in micromachined lorentz force magnetic sensor by current chopping
Offsets (short and long term) are significantly reduced in a lorentz force magnetometer circuit. A modulated bias current supplied to the magnetometer is chopped by periodically switching its polarity.
The Regents Of The University Of California
Continuity test system and method
A continuity test system (100), includes a base unit (1) and a mobile unit (9). The base unit (1) is adapted to be connected to a first portion of a test item, and, the mobile unit (9) is both interconnected to said base unit (1), and adapted to be connected to a second portion of said test item.
The Peak Group Pty Limited
Hvac system with automated flow direction detection
A heating, ventilation, or air conditioning (hvac) system with automated flow direction detection is provided. The hvac system includes one or more hoses configured to provide airflow from hvac equipment, a bidirectional pressure sensor coupled to the hoses, and a controller coupled to the bidirectional pressure sensor.
Johnson Controls Technology Company
Rotation detection for ring-shaped user input member of smart-home device
According to one embodiment, a thermostat includes a main body, a rotatable input component that is rotatably coupled with the main body, and a rotation detection system that is configured to sense user rotation of the rotatable input component. The rotatable input component is configured to be rotated by a user to enable the user to provide input to the thermostat.