|| List of recent Packing-related patents
| Utilization of stents for the treatment of blood borne carcinomas|
A filter and a method to treat blood borne carcinomas by inducing apoptosis in carcinoma cells. The filter includes a stent having an interior wall defining a channel containing a packing material and at least one antineoplastic agent.
| Packed tower|
A packed tower for the absorption of water or so3 in sulfuric acid includes a jacket and a domed grid disposed within the jacket. The domed grid is held on an l-shaped ring such that a gap is formed between an outside diameter of the domed grid and the jacket.
| Mems jetting structure for dense packing|
A fluid ejector includes a fluid ejection module having a substrate and a layer separate from the substrate. The substrate includes a plurality of fluid ejection elements arranged in a matrix, each fluid ejection element configured to cause a fluid to be ejected from a nozzle.
| Method and apparatus for the bio-remediation of aqueous waste compositions|
Numerous different types of waste compositions generally in an aqueous environment are bio-remediated under aerobic conditions utilizing highly diverse and multiple microorganisms within a reactor. The process is carried out with the microorganisms attached or bound by a variety of different surface characteristics to packing substrates, located within the reactor, having high surface areas and high porosity in the form of small micropores.
| Packaging for a window and a method for packing|
A packaging for a window comprising a folded sheet member and at least one fastener or bonder for interconnecting different sections of the sheet member for the formation of a box, where two lid sections are each connected to a side section of the sheet member. The sum of the widths of the lid sections is substantially equal to the width of a receiving section intended for carrying the window and the lid sections have different widths.
| Wellbore packer and method|
A wellbore packer for setting against a wellbore wall in a wellbore, the wellbore packer including: a mandrel including a upper end and an lower end; and an outer housing encircling the mandrel and including a first compression ring, a second compression ring, an annular packing element encircling the mandrel and positioned between the first compression ring and the second compression ring, the sealing element being expandable to form an annular seal about the packer by compression between the first compression ring and the second compression ring; and an anchoring mechanism including a slip that is expandable outwardly into a set position and a slip actuation assembly to drive expansion of the slip.. .
|Process for oxidizing one or more thiol compounds|
One exemplary embodiment can be a process for oxidizing one or more thiol compounds from an alkaline stream. The process may include passing a mixed stream having the alkaline stream to an oxidation vessel having a body and a neck.
|Biodegradable films obtained from cassava starch and their manufacture process|
The present invention is related to the elaboration of flexible films from cassaya starch for the manufacture of biodegradable packaging useful in the packing and packaging of dry foods and other products. The novel films of the invention are produced by extrusion of a mixture of cassaya starch and plasticizer..
|Method for separating blood, separation container for a blood centrifuge, system for filling a freezer container|
The invention relates to a method for separating blood, to a separation container and to a system, wherein different blood fractions—erythrocytes (64), buffy coat (65) and blood plasma (66)—are obtained, wherein blood is introduced into a separation container (1) and is then centrifuged into different superimposed, fluidically connected sections of the separation container, specifically a top section (4) for receiving the blood plasma (66), a middle section (3) for receiving the buffy coat, and a bottom section (2) for receiving the erythrocytes (64). The aim of the invention is to optimize the extraction of buffy coat.
|Food packaging material having uniform coating of oil, method of manufacturing the same, mold for manufacturing the same|
The present invention relates to a food packaging material for packing food, more particularly to a food packaging material having a uniform coating of oil, a method of manufacturing the same, and a mold for manufacturing the same. The food packaging material includes a plurality of grooves formed on one surface of the food packaging material; and an oil layer uniformly applied to the one surface of the food packaging material, being put into the grooves.
|Method of manufacturing an article from powder material and an apparatus for manufacturing an article from powder material|
An apparatus for manufacturing an article from powder material includes a canister, a sorter, a plurality of hoppers and at least one valve. The canister has a predetermined internal shape to define the shape of the powder metal article.
|Local area processing using packed distribution functions|
Described herein are devices and techniques for providing adaptable local area processing (lap) contrast enhancement of imagery by redistributing pixel intensity values in a dynamic range of an imaging device according to a packed statistical distribution function, wherein the redistribution is achieved according to a recursive packing factor.. .
|Portable device and portable timepiece|
Provision of a portable device capable of improving waterproof property in a push-in operation portion with a simple structure. A wrist watch (portable device) 11 includes an outer case (device outer housing) 12, an operation member 41 and a holding ring 46.
|Method for molding powder mold product|
The present invention relates to a method for molding a powder mold product according to which a powder mold product of uniform quality can be molded with excellent productivity. The present invention includes the steps of: preparing raw material powder 3 (a preparing step); interposing a mold assembly-use lubricant between an outer circumferential face 12s of a first punch (a lower punch 12) and an inner circumferential face 10s of a die 10, the lower punch 12 and the die 10 in this state being relatively shifted to apply the mold assembly-use lubricant to the inner circumferential face 10s of the die 10 (an applying step); and packing the raw material powder 3 into a cavity, a powder mold product 100 being molded by the raw material powder 3 being pressed (a molding step).
|Medicine dispenser, method of discharging medicine, and automatic medicine packing machine including the dispenser|
The present disclosure provides a medicine dispenser, which can detect the number of medicines such that an accurate number of medicines can be discharged for packing, a medicine discharging method, and an automatic packing machine including the medicine dispenser. The medicine dispenser includes a frame and a medicine transfer unit attached to the frame and transferring medicines one pill at a time to an outside of the medicine dispenser.
|Gift card presentation devices|
The disclosed invention relates generally to various embodiments of holders and packaging for giving gifts. In particular, the invention relates to various gift card holders that hold a gift card and enhance the presentation and gift giving experience for recipients and gift givers alike.
|Biodegradable packaging obtained from cassava flour and fique fiber and their manufacture process|
The present invention is related to the elaboration of a compound material molded from cassava flour for the manufacture of biodegradable packaging useful in packing and packaging of dry foods and other products. The semi-rigid novel compound material is elaborated through thermo-pressing of a mixture of cassava flour and fique fiber..
|Method for packing cable|
Provided is a method for packing a cable having a static friction coefficient of 0.15 or more and 0.50 or less, a dynamic friction coefficient of 0.10 or more and 0.40 or less and a bending rigidity of 60 gf or more and 350 gf or less. The method includes the steps of: (1) winding the cable into a figure-of-eight shape to form a cylindrical cable bundle, (2) winding a wrapping film as a restraining member, which restrains the cable bundle, around an outer circumferential portion of the cable bundle, (3) winding a wrapping film as a closing member which closes openings on both ends of the cable bundle, and (4) housing the cable bundle being wound with the restraining member and the closing member in a housing container..
|Method and device for fully automatically selecting and packing photovoltaic modules|
The disclosure relates to a method and to a device for fully automatically selecting and packing photovoltaic solar modules, for example, produced in mass production. The device may include the following characteristics: a production line, b) a quality checking device having devices for mechanical final testing and electrical final testing, c) an assembly device for module carriers, d) a device for distributing and stacking the solar modules in the horizontal and vertical direction according to particular selection criteria at acceptance locations corresponding to said selection criteria, e) devices for placing strips as spacers between stacked modules, wherein different types of strips can be taken from a magazine, f) devices for collating packages of a plurality of solar modules at each acceptance location, wherein aid devices each comprise a film wrapper, a protective cap applicator, and a strapping device..
The invention relates to a chemically modified cellulose based dressing particularly for use in the dressing of wounds but also for use as a packing material. Dressings according to the invention seek to mitigate the problems associated with shrinkage encountered with fibrous dressings made of gel-forming fibres and comprise a compressed body of chemically modified polysaccharide having a density of at least 0.08 g/cm3..
|Enclosure-based reduced pressure treatment system|
A reduced pressure treatment appliance is provided for enclosing and providing reduced pressure treatment to a portion of a body of a patient. The reduced pressure treatment appliance may be used to treat wounds and other conditions, such as lymphedema, varicose veins, venous insufficiency and stasis, and other infirmities.
An upright column is packed with particles of a first material so the particles touch one another and a network of voids is defined between the particles. The network will be substantially continuous.
|Buffer material for packing wafer carrier|
At the time of packing a wafer carrier into a container, an upper buffer body and a lower buffer body are arranged above and below the wafer carrier. The wafer carrier has: a box-like carrier main body having a frame-like step portion formed on an upper inner peripheral surface of an access opening; and a lid body that closes the access opening in an openable manner when it is accommodated in the frame-like step portion through a gasket.
|Method for manufacture and storage of fruit and/or berry product|
The invention relates to the food-processing industry, particularly, to a method for manufacture and storage of honey-containing fruit and/or berry products. According to the invention, a fruit and/or berry juice and honey are mixed in the following proportions (weight percent): fruit and/or berry juice 75-93; honey 25-7, and the obtained product is stored at a temperature between −10° c.
|Composite formulation comprising a tablet encapsulated in a hard capsule|
The present invention relates to a hard capsule composite formulation comprising a capsule having a hemispherical closure at each end and an interior space; and one or more tablets encapsulated in the capsule, wherein the tablet or the tablets as a whole have a shape conforming to the internal space of the capsule. The hard capsule composite formulation can efficiently charge pharmaceutical compositions inside the limited interior space of the capsule, and hence, it allows packing a high-dose of pharmaceutical composition in a relatively small-sized capsule, which increases productivity and patient compliance.
|Capacitor array and method of manufacture|
An improved array of capacitors is provided wherein the improvement includes improved electrical properties and improved packing density. The array has an anode foil and a dielectric on a surface of the anode foil.
|Hinge label tab container|
A two-piece tamper-evident and tamper-resistant container having a base, a lid and a label hinge connecting the lid and base to one another for use in packing, identifying and selling fresh food items and the like. A rim about an upper periphery of the base engages an identically contoured flange about a lower periphery of the lid, and a protective lip integral to and extending from an outermost end of the rim prevents access to the lip making the label hinge the only possible access point of the container.
|Welded pull-down tab container|
A two-piece tamper-evident and tamper-resistant container having a base, a lid and a welded hinge connecting the lid and base to one another for use in packing, identifying and selling fresh food items and the like. A rim about an upper periphery of the base engages an identically contoured flange about a lower periphery of the lid, and a protective lip integral to and extending from an outermost end of the rim prevents access to the lip making a pull-tab of the frangible hinge the only possible access point of the container.
|Welded tab container|
A two-piece tamper-evident and tamper-resistant container having a base, a lid and a welded hinge connecting the lid and base to one another for use in packing, identifying and selling fresh food items and the like. A rim about an upper periphery of the base engages an identically contoured flange about a lower periphery of the lid, and a protective lip integral to and extending from an outermost end of the rim prevents access to the lip making the tear-strip of the hinge the only possible access point of the container.
|Packing of chromatography columns|
The invention provides a packing method for high efficiency chromatography columns starting from dry swellable particles, as well as columns packed by the method and the use of the columns in separation of biomolecules. In the packing method, an amount of dry swellable particles sufficient to give a swollen volume in a liquid of about 105-120% of the column chamber volume is transferred to the column, the column is closed and the liquid is provided to the column..
|Cutting elements and tools comprising interbonded grains of diamond and related compositions|
Cutting elements include at least one metal diffused into interbonded grains of diamond. Earth-boring tools include at least one such cutting element.
|Row treating unit for agriculture implement|
This disclosure is directed to the field of agricultural machinery and relates to implements generally used in combination with a multi-row soil trench closing mechanism. Specifically, the disclosure relates to row treating units adapted to be attached to and following a multi-row planter and incorporating a combination of tools that includes a seed trench closing wheel assembly and a firming/packing wheel assembly.
|Method for stopping or at least reducing the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons, blowout, from a hydrocarbon extraction well|
Method for stopping or at least reducing the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons, blowout, from a well for the extraction of hydrocarbons, which comprises introducing high-density solids at the bottom of the well, through a suitable line, having a polyhedral, spheroidal, ellipsoidal or paraboloidal form, regular or irregular, possibly coated with swelling polymeric material in contact with the fluids leaving the well, the smallest dimension of said solids being greater than 1 mm and the largest dimension less than 100 mm, so that said solids introduced accumulate by random packing at the bottom of the well, forming a column which totally, or at least partially, blocks the uncontrolled release of said hydrocarbons.. .
|Invert emulsion gravel pack fluid and method|
A gravel packing fluid and method for brine-sensitive formations. The fluid comprises an invert oil emulsion compatible with oil based drilling fluids and having a suspension agent comprising polyurea and dimer diamine.
|Particle packed cement-scm blends|
Cement-scm blends employ particle packing principles to increase particle packing density and reduce interstitial spacing between the cement and scm particles. Particle packing reduces the amount of water required to obtain a cement paste having a desired flow, lowers the water-cementitious material ratio (w/cm), and increases early and long-term strengths.
|Manufacturing process for packing of injectables|
H) preparing the closed secondary container for transportation to a remote site.. .
|Disinfection, destruction of neoplastic growth, and sterilization by differential absorption of electromagnetic energy|
Neoplastic tissue, viral and bacterial infections, and other physiological disorders and conditions are treated by irradiation of the host with electromagnetic radiation at a wavelength that is differentially absorbed by the offending tissue or cells. Radiation with differential absorption is also used in the sterilization of articles and packing made from synthetic polymers and for the treatment of food stuffs..
The present invention provides a packing sheet and ptp packing body, which do not include halogen materials such as chlorine and fluorine and have high water vapor barrier property. The packing sheet of the present invention includes at least a high-density polyethylene resin (a), petroleum resin (b), and amorphous polyolefin resin (c).
|Fluidized bed water gas shift catalyst|
The present invention relates to an aqueous gas-converting catalyst composition comprising: an active component; a support; an inorganic binder; at least one accelerator selected from the group consisting of cobalt oxide, molybdenum oxide, nickel oxide, calcium oxide, barium oxide, strontium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, manganese oxide and barium titania; and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, stabilized zirconia, and hydrotalcite. The catalyst according to the present invention can effectively capture and separate carbon dioxide due to the excellent physical properties thereof such as packing density and abrasion resistance, and high co conversion.
|Enhanced packing of energy storage particles|
The present application is generally directed to energy storage materials such as activated carbon comprising enhanced particle packing properties and devices containing the same. The energy storage materials find utility in any number of devices, for example, in electric double layer capacitance devices and batteries.
|Device for changing pitch of stack|
The purpose of the invention is to efficiently perform the work of changing stacked objects, which are stacked in one container with one pitch, to another pitch and storing same in the stacked form in another container. Multiple workpieces (51) are juxtaposed in a stacked form with a prescribed pitch and attachment pads (25) for attaching the workpieces are provided on base plates (3).
|Discharge device for an elastic packing container and method for discharging an elastic container|
Discharge device for discharging a container containing viscous substances and having an elastic shell material, has a winding roller, a counter pressure roller, an actuator for rotating the winding roller and a control part for controlling the actuator. The inner part of the winding roller is hollow and includes therein an attaching arrangement, where the shell material of the container to be discharged is attached.
|Hydraulic set packer with piston to annulus communication|
A hydraulically set packer has a mandrel with an internal bore and a port communicating the internal bore outside the mandrel. A packing element disposed on the mandrel can be compressed by a piston to engage the borehole.
|Liquid distribution device utilizing packed distribution troughs and a mass transfer column and process involving same|
A flow distributor for a liquid descending in a vertically elongated mass transfer column, a mass transfer column employing the same, and a method of treating a fluid stream in the mass transfer column is provided. The flow distributor includes a central distribution member for passing liquid to a plurality of outwardly extending side arm members, which, in turn, feed the liquid into a plurality of distribution troughs located below the elongated side members.
To provide a check valve which can be used even under a high temperature condition by overcoming a drawback “valve element sticking to sealing member” associated with high temperature use while enhancing heat resistance. An opening of a fluid path formed in a first body is brought into a closed state by bringing a valve element biased by a biasing member into contact with a sealing member.
|Twin layer packaging machine|
A packaging machine is disclosed for packing cartons with beverage cans in two overlaying layers. The packaging machine has a selector flight, a can flight, and a carton flight, all synchronously movable.
|Packing- and/or transport unit and method for producing an insulation layer|
The invention relates to a packing- and/or transport unit comprising several fibrous insulation elements (4, 5) for flat roof insulation being arranged in at least one stack (2) and at least one support means (3) being arranged under the stack (2), whereby the stack (2) contains at least two different types of insulation elements (4, 5), which differ with respect to the material properties. A packing- and/or transport unit which is easy to handle and which allows to arrange most of the materials close to the places where it is needed is achieved in that the stacked insulation elements (4, 5) comprise lamellas (4) and/or lamella boards having a high compression strength but low point load resistance due to their fiber orientation and at least one insulation board (5) having an even higher compression strength and high point load resistance..
|Compact multi-viewing element endoscope system|
The present specification is directed towards endoscopes, such as colonoscopes, that provide a broader field of view and allow extended access of surgical tools and also enable efficient packing of all necessary elements in the tip section, while maintaining their functionality. Also described are methods and systems for capturing and displaying still and video images using an endoscope corresponding to a left-side looking, a front-looking and a right-side looking viewing element of an endoscopic tip generated in a native aspect ratio..
|Process for stripping and a fluid catalytic cracking apparatus relating thereto|
One exemplary embodiment can be a process for stripping. The process can include passing catalyst to a stripping vessel containing a riser, providing a plurality of baffles having a first baffle and a second baffle, and providing one or more packing layers.
|Pneumatic motor of pneumatic packing machine|
A pneumatic motor mounted on a pneumatic packing machine includes a pneumatic unit. The pneumatic unit is connected with a first planet gear unit.
|Mof-based hierarchical porous materials, methods for preparation, methods for pore regulation and uses thereof|
A series of mof-based hierarchical porous material, namely ipd-mesomof-1˜9, based on nanoscale mofs of mil-100(al, fe, cr, sc and in), mil-53(al), hkust-1, dut-5, dut-4, mil-101(cr), mil-101ndc(cr), mil-101bpdc(cr) and mil-110 respectively, forming the permanent interparticle porosities by using close (or relatively close) packing, and preparation methods thereof. Modulated or functionalized ipd-mesomofs can be applied for gas adsorption and molecule separation (such as ch4- and co2-adsorption, gasoline/diesel desulfurization and purification), catalyst loadings and molecular recognition/immobilization of biological macromolecules and enzymes..
|Multi-segmented structured ceramic packing|
A multi-segmented monolith (msm) which can be used as a structured packing in mass-transfer and catalytic operations is disclosed. The msm comprises a series of longitudinally attached segments.
|Multi-turn electrical coil and fabricating device and associated methods|
A coil former provides for restricted cross-over locations for a coil resulting in an optimum wire packing at all points within the coil. The coil former has a first side wall in a spaced relation to an opposing second side wall, wherein a cavity formed between the side walls accommodates multiple turns of wire for forming a coil.
|Selective deposition of magnetic particles and using magnetic material as a carrier medium to deposit nanoparticles|
Selective deposition of magnetic material such as particles, and producing a pre-laminated stack of shielding layers for offsetting attenuation of rf caused by a metal face plate of a smart card (or tag) or a metallized layer near a passive transponder. Coated or uncoated magnetic particles of different sizes may be used to increase the packing density of the material after its deposition on a substrate.
|Device for filling a cigarrette tube with a metered amount of tobacco|
A device for filling cigarette tubes that can be designed and used manually, partially automatically, or, fully automatically for packing cigarette tubes with a metered, precise amount of tobacco that leads to a consistent filling of the tube to an even and complete density such that the burning rate and continuity are consistently the same, regardless of the cut of tobacco being used, or of moisture content of the tobacco, and, independent of operator control variables.. .
|High stable fiber fabry-perot pressure sensor with glue-free packing and its fabrication method|
The present invention relates to a high stable fiber fabry-perot pressure sensor with glue-free packing and its fabrication method. The sensor includes a sensor head, a sensor body with a through-hole in the axial direction and a optical fiber.
|Metal-organic framework extrudates with high packing density and tunable pore volume|
The present invention relates to extruded shaped bodies containing at least one metal-organic framework (mof), methods for their preparation and their use.. .
|Simd instructions for data compression and decompression|
An execution unit configured for compression and decompression of numerical data utilizing single instruction, multiple data (simd) instructions is described. The numerical data includes integer and floating-point samples.
|Data compression and decompression using simd instructions|
Compression and decompression of numerical data utilizing single instruction, multiple data (simd) instructions is described. The numerical data includes integer and floating-point samples.
|Case for packing battery|
A case for packing a battery including a receiving case in which one or more battery cells are receivable, the receiving case including an open top portion; and a cover covering the open top portion of the receiving case and including a bottom part configured to surround peripheral portions of terminals of the one or more battery cells to insulate the terminals.. .
A knitted spacer fabric has a tightly knitted bottom layer, a more loosely knitted upper layer and linking fibres extending across the space between the lower and upper faces. Settable material, e.g.
|Automated truck unloader for unloading/unpacking product from trailers and containers|
An automatic truck unloader for unloading/unpacking product, such as boxes or cases, from trailers and containers is disclosed. In one embodiment, a mobile base structure provides a support framework for a drive subassembly, conveyance subassembly, an industrial robot, a distance measurement subassembly, and a control subassembly.
Disclosed herein is a packing box in which the size and shape of an accommodation space are easily changeable to ensure convenient use of the contents. The packing box includes a rectangular bottom member and four sidewall members adapted to be erected at an outer perimeter of the bottom member, thereby defining an accommodation space having an open top.
|Collapsible self-supporting wall socket appliance charging and storage caddy|
The present invention provides a collapsible self-supporting wall socket caddy used to hold an appliance and charger cord at a wall socket to facilitate charging the appliance. The caddy comprises a back panel with an opening allowing the appliance charger contacts to pass through the caddy and engage in the wall socket, thereby securing the caddy to the wall socket.
|Assembled packing case|
The present invention relates to an assembled packing case, which comprises a bottom component with a cruciform underside, and corner components clamped at the vacant corner of the bottom component; limiting holes are set at the clamping positions of the bottom component and the corner components; and further comprises fasteners inserting into the limiting holes to limit the relative position between the bottom component and the corner components; the bottom component and the corner component are set as mortise and tenon structures at their junctions; the bottom component and the corner components joggle into a packing case by the mortise and tenon structures. The structure of the assembled packing case is simple and the cost is low..
|Packing assembly for car floor mats|
A packaging assembly for car floor mats including a main body portion; at least one support member extending from the main body portion, and a securing arrangement releasably secured to the support member, wherein at least one car floor mat can be retained on the support member when the securing arrangement is secured to the support member, and wherein the at least one car floor mat can be removed from the packaging assembly when the securing arrangement is released from the support member.. .
|Treatment fluids comprising stabilized heteropolysaccharides and related methods|
Treatment fluids employing stabilized heteropolysaccharide-based gels in brines are used as part of gravel packing and combined gravel packing-fracturing operations; a method includes providing a treatment fluid which includes an aqueous brine base, a heteropolysaccharide including one selected from the group consisting of diutan, scleroglucan, and succinoglycan, and a protein present in an amount sufficient to stabilize the heteropolysaccharide and hence minimizing the salting out phenomenon, the method including placing the treatment fluid in a subterranean formation.. .
|Packing method and unit for producing a rigid package with a hollow rib|
A packing method and unit (26) for producing a rigid package (1) with a hollow rib (12; 13); an end portion of a blank (21) is folded about a contrasting body (36; 39) onto a panel (11′) of the blank (21) to form the hollow rib (12; 13); a fastening tab (16; 19), which forms the end part of the end portion, is glued to the panel (11′) to stabilize the hollow rib (12; 13); and the contrasting body (36; 39) is extracted from the hollow rib (12; 13) once the end portion is folded.. .
|Sealing module of a vacuum packing machine|
A sealing module of a vacuum packing machine includes a base, a sealing bar, an air bag, and two guide posts. The sealing bar is mounted on the guide posts which are secured on the base.
|Device for mounting a separation membrane element in a separation membrane module|
In the device for mounting a separation membrane element in a separation membrane module, a sealing member is constituted of a plurality of notched circular packings made of graphite, for example, each having a notched circular shape as viewed in a plan view. The plurality of notched circular packings are fitted on an upper end portion of the separation membrane element in a state where the notched circular packings are made to overlap with each other in plural stages, notched portions of the notched circular packings arranged adjacent to each other vertically are arranged at positions different from each other as viewed in a plan view, the notched circular packings in plural stages are received by the inwardly projecting annular receiving portion in the mounting hole, the notched circular packings in plural stages are pressed to the annular receiving portion by threaded engagement of the press fitting thus applying sealing..
|Systems and methods for media packaging|
The invention relates to a method for packaging media and data for transmission over a broadband communications network link for display at a terminal destination. Features of the method included creating desired media segments for transmission to the terminal destination and for creating targeting information, for example in whole or in part in the form of metadata, for transmission to the terminal destination.