|| List of recent Optical Component-related patents
An optical module, including a pcb, an optical component arranged on the pcb, and an optical fiber coupled with the optical component through an optical lens module, further including a fixed bracket, a lens bracket detachably connected with the fixed bracket, and a fiber bracket detachably connected with the lens bracket, the fixed bracket is fixed on the pcb, the optical lens module is arranged on the lens bracket, the optical fiber is arranged on the fiber bracket, and the optical component is located between the fixed bracket and the lens bracket, the fixed bracket is provided with at least two positioning parts, the lens bracket is provided with positioning parts matching respectively the positioning parts of the fixed bracket to achieve detachable connection. The optical path coupling is achieved through the mechanical fixation among multiple brackets, working process is simplified, and coupling consistency and accuracy are improved..
|Method for structuring a flat substrate composed of glass-type material, and optical component|
The invention is a method for structuring a flat substrate composed of glass material in the course of a viscous flow process. The glass flat substrate is joined to a surface of a flat substrate, which is preferably a semiconductor flat substrate, having at least one depression bounded by a circumferential edge located in the surface.
|System and method for projecting synthetic imagery and scenic imagery using an optical component comprising a diffractive optical element pattern|
A display system includes an optical component having a first and second surface, wherein the first surface comprises a diffractive optical element, and a projector system to create a projected image on the optical component. The projector includes an illumination source that emits electromagnetic radiation within a predetermined spectral band, an image generator that ascribes image characteristics to the radiation, and an optically-powered component that directs the radiation at the first surface of the optical component.
|Tunable optical frequency converter based on a phase modulator|
The present invention provides a tunable optical frequency converter based on a phase modulator, which comprises a laser, a first optical isolator and a circulating frequency shift module. Said circulating frequency shift module is composed of an optical coupler, a phase modulator, an optical amplifier, a second optical isolator, a first optical circulator, an optical fiber bragg grating, a second optical circulator, a tunable filter and a tunable attenuator.
|Mitigating thermal shock in tintable windows|
Tintable optical components such as windows are provided with a controller designed or configured to control the tinting in a manner that resists exposure to damaging thermal shock. The controller determines that a trigger condition for thermal shock is occurring or is about to occur and takes steps to avoid damaging thermal shock.
|Security screening systems and methods|
The present disclosure describes security screening systems and methods for identifying a suspect material in a sample. In general terms, the system and method disclosed herein provide collection optics configured to collect a first plurality of interacted photons from an illuminated sample and generating a first optical signal.
|Portable wavefront aberrometer|
A module for use with a mobile device to measure an aberration of a patient's eye includes a light shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, and a light source. The light shaft includes a first plurality of optical components arranged to direct light along a first light path from the light source to the proximal end, and a second plurality of optical components arranged to direct light along a second light path from the proximal end to a light detector of the mobile device.
|Optical alignment apparatus and methodology for a video based metrology tool|
A system for quickly aligning a test optic with various components of an optical metrology tool. A collimated target is presented to a beamsplitting reference surface located on a positioning system for holding and manipulating the test optic.
|Systems and methods for an integrated bio-entity manipulation and processing semiconductor device|
An integrated semiconductor device for manipulating and processing bio-entity samples is disclosed. The device includes a microfluidic channel that is coupled to fluidic control circuitry, a photosensor array coupled to sensor control circuitry, an optical component aligned with the photosensor array to manipulate a light signal before the light signal reaches the photosensor array, and a microfluidic grid coupled to the microfluidic channel and providing for transport of bio-entity sample droplets by electrowetting.
|Laser-based splicing of glass fibers onto optical components|
Aiming a laser beam (4) at the optical component (3). In order to specify an improved method in which the properties of the joining partners are maintained to the greatest extent during splicing, which exhibits high reproducibility and in particular is suitable for splicing joining partners of different cross-sections, the invention proposes that the angle of incidence of the laser beam (4) on the surface of the optical component be between 15° and 45°..
|Optical component assembly for use with an optical device|
The inventive optical component assembly advantageously enables a multi-waveguide optical component (such as the inventive optical fiber coupler array, a multi-core optical fiber, etc.), to be coupled to at least one waveguide of an optical device at a predefined coupling angle. The optical component assembly of the present invention comprises a multi-waveguide optical component with an output end, a prism having an input surface, an output surface, and an internal reflective surface with a predefined reflection angle, and a grin lens, positioned between the component output end and the prism input surface, along a longitudinal axis of the multi-waveguide optical component.
|Agile light source provisioning for information and communications technology systems|
Optical components are provided for use in information and communications technology (ict) systems. For example, an optical assembly includes an optical module configured to modulate continuous wave optical beams of different powers into a plurality of modulated optical signals at different powers and couple the modulated optical signals onto different length optical mediums, so that lower power ones of the modulated optical signals are coupled to shorter ones of the optical mediums and higher power ones of the modulated optical signals are coupled to longer ones of the optical mediums.
|Projection image display apparatus|
A projection image display apparatus capable of maintaining the positional accuracy of an integrator optical system even when subjected to an external force is provided. The projection image display apparatus includes an integrator optical system which converges and uniformizes a light emitted from a light source, a color separating optical system which separates the colors of the light emitted from the integrator optical system, a color synthesizing optical system which synthesizes lights separated by the color separating optical system, a projection optical system which emits the light, which has been synthesized by the color synthesizing optical system, onto a projection surface, a first optical case which fixes and houses the integrator optical system, the color separating optical system, and the color synthesizing optical system at respective predetermined positions, and a second optical case which fixes and houses optical components of the integrator optical system at predetermined positions, and the second optical case is attached to the first optical case..
|System for protecting light optical components during laser ablation|
A method and apparatus to perform laser ablation in the vicinity of a charged particle beam while simultaneously protecting the light optical components of the apparatus utilized to perform the ablation from being coated with debris resulting from the ablation process. According to preferred embodiments of the present invention, a protective transparent screen is used to shield the laser optical components.
|Method for reducing the effects of component misalignment in an optical system|
Different rotational interfaces between individual optical components and their mounts are compared based on a sensitivity of optical system performance to misalignment of the optical component to an alignment axis of the optical mount within a clearance space. The rotational interfaces at which the sensitivity of the optical system performance to the misalignment of the optical component approaches a minimum are incorporated into the optical design..
|Variable power optical system|
Liquid lens cells are used in a compound variable power optical system that forms an intermediate image between the object and the final image. A first variable power optical component is located between the object and an intermediate real image.
|Placement apparatus for optical component, suction nozzle for optical component, and a method of producing electronic device|
A placement apparatus for an optical component includes: a suction nozzle that includes a nozzle main body having a suction surface having a suction port, an optical component being sucked to the suction port, a plurality of nozzle electrodes disposed on the suction surface, each of the nozzle electrodes being brought into contact with a corresponding one of a plurality of component electrodes provided on the optical component so as to establish electrical conduction between each of the plurality of nozzle electrodes and a corresponding one of the plurality of component electrodes.. .
|Intravascular devices, systems, and methods|
Intravascular devices, systems, and methods are disclosed. In some embodiments, the intravascular devices include at least one electronic, optical, or electro-optical component positioned within a distal portion of the device and one or more connectors positioned at a distal portion of the device.
|Methods, systems and devices for determining white blood cell counts for radiation exposure|
Systems and methods are provided for imaging at least one eye with optical components and processing the image of the at least one eye to determine radiation exposure. An image of one or more eyes may be received.
|System and method for imaging in laser dental treatment|
A device for determining a contour of a dental treatment area during treatment thereof includes a laser beam guidance system and an imaging system. The laser beam guidance system can guide a laser beam and, optionally, a scanning light to a dental treatment area, and the imaging system, which can include an adjustable focus image sensor, can obtain an image of the dental treatment area based on light rays reflected therefrom.
|Upgradeable passive optical fiber circuit|
Optical equipment for 1g-epon, 10g-epon, and cwdm services are joined together using a novel combination of optical power splitters and multiplexers. This combination of splitters and multiplexers can be disposed in a single housing, which reduces the size of the combination and improves performance, since jumpers between multiple, separately packaged, optical components can be avoided.
|Rayleigh reflectors and applications thereof|
In one aspect, optical devices and components are described herein. In some embodiments, a device comprises a substrate and a grating layer disposed on the substrate, wherein the grating layer comprises a periodic grating structure and a sublayer beneath the grating structure and adjacent the substrate.
|Circuit board(s) employing optical interfaces optically connected to surface-accessible, planar-shaped, inter-board optical fiber traces, and related connectors, assemblies, and methods|
Circuit boards employing optical interfaces optically connected to surface-accessible, planar-shaped inter-board optical fiber traces, and related connectors, assemblies, and methods are disclosed. The circuit boards include inter-board optical fiber traces optically connected to optical components interfacing optical signals to electronic signal components in the circuit board.
|Laser optic protection|
The specification and drawings present an apparatus and a method for protecting lasers or other sources of high optical power from damage due to external sources of contamination using a concept of a sacrificial optical component and automatic laser shutdown based on a pressure indication of a substantial damage to the sacrificial optical component such as puncturing through that component.. .
|Optical systems for mobile electronic devices|
Some embodiments disclosed herein relate to an optical system with a mounting component, a light conveyance member, and an optical component. The mounting component may be removably attached to a mobile electronic device, and light entering the optical component may be conveyed to an onboard camera of the mobile electronic device via the light conveyance member.
|Self-referencing fiber-optic raman probe|
In accordance with the present invention, a novel self-referencing fiber optic raman probe is disclosed. It uses the raman signal generated by a crystalline optical fiber to normalize the raman signal produced by the sample in order to compensate for changes in the output power of the excitation laser light source, the coupling efficiencies of the optical fibers connecting the light source to the probe and the probe to the analyzing spectrometer, and the alignment of optical components within the probe..
|Multifunction solid-state inspection system|
An inspection system includes optical components for operating the inspection system in an interference fringe imaging mode and a microscope imaging mode. The inspection system further includes at least one optical light source configured to emit a first wavelength of light to operate the inspection system in the interference fringe imaging mode and configure to emit a second wavelength of light to operate the inspection system in the microscope mode.
|Multimodal ocular imager|
An imaging probe for imaging a sample includes at least one light source that provides light to a sample. The imaging probe also includes a first imaging objective that focuses a first light reflected from the sample and a second light reflected from the sample, such that the first light and the second light share at least a portion of an imaging path.
|Continuous capacitance measurement for mems-actuated movement of an optical component within an auto-focus camera module|
A mems-actuated autofocus camera module configured for continuous capacitance measurement includes a bridge balance detector coupled to a mems actuator driver. The mems actuated autofocus camera module is configured to permit online mems actuator capacitance measurements to automatically focus images of objects disposed at arbitrary distances from autofocus camera module..
|Integrated telescope assembly|
The telescopes described are configured in an integrated telescope package by permanently fixing optical components of the telescope at predefined positions without having movable or adjustable components in the optical layout of the telescope to improve immunity to vibrations and other perturbations and to maintain stability of the optical alignment.. .
|Head mounted display assembly|
A method for assembling a head mounted display includes providing a rigid structural frame, and forming an inner optical assembly by assembling optical components to the structural frame including at least one micro-display configured to generate an image, and at least one reflective optical component configured to direct the image to a user's eye. The method includes assembling an outer frame to the inner optical assembly to provide protection for the optical components and customization of the head-mounted display for the user..
|Laser cutting process monitoring and control|
A laser system including various optical components providing for beam alignment and process monitoring of a stent cutting process is described. The various aspects of the invention provide for monitoring of a beam of laser light reflected from the surface of a stent tube so as monitor the properties of the cutting beam, location of the beam, system cleanliness, optical defects in the system, and cutting efficiency of the laser..
|Method of making a microbead array with attached biomolecules|
A method and apparatus for the manipulation of colloidal particulates and biomolecules at the interface between an insulating electrode such as silicon oxide and an electrolyte solution. Light-controlled electrokinetic assembly of particles near surfaces relics on the combination of three functional elements: the ac electric field-induced assembly of planar aggregates; the patterning of the electrolyte/silicon oxide/silicon interface to exert spatial control over the assembly process; and the real-time control of the assembly process via external illumination.
|Fractional handpiece for dermatological treatments|
A medical device includes a housing that is moved along a surface of a target tissue in a longitudinal direction. One or more supply lines conduct air and water to the housing.
|Injection mold, optical component, optical scanning device, and image forming apparatus|
There is provided an injection mold for molding an optical component including an optical surface, a non-optical surface separated from the optical surface, and a rib provided to an edge portion of the optical surface, and longer in a direction parallel to the optical surface than in a direction perpendicular to the optical surface. The mold includes a transfer piece including a transfer surface that molds the optical surface and a movable cavity piece including a non-transfer surface that molds at least a portion of the non-optical surface.
|System for order alignment of diffractively produced images|
A system for order alignment of diffractively produced images is provided. The system comprises: a diffractive spatial light modulator (dslm) configured to provide a computer generated hologram of an image; a substantially coherent light source configured to illuminate the dslm which responsively produces the image along each of different diffractive order paths; and, at least one set of optical components located along respective diffractive order paths of the dslm, the at least one set of optical components configured to align at least one respective image diffracted from the dslm with at least another diffracted image at a common image plane..
|Measuring device for distance measurement|
A measuring device for measuring a distance between a reference mark and a target object is disclosed. The device includes a beam source, which is embodied as an electro-optical component and emits a laser beam along an optical axis, a detector, which is embodied as an additional electro-optical component and receives a reception beam reflected and/or scattered by the target object along an optical axis, a beam forming optics, which forms the laser beam and the reception beam along an optical axis, and a beam splitting optics, which deflects the laser beam or the reception beam.
|Light coupling structures for optical touch panels|
A coupling element (14) for use in a touch-sensitive apparatus is arranged to transfer light between an electro-optical device (2) and a panel (4) for light transmission. The electro-optical device (2) is an emitter or a detector and has an operative solid angle given by orthogonal device divergence angles.
|Wafer scale packaging platform for transceivers|
A wafer scale implementation of an opto-electronic transceiver assembly process utilizes a silicon wafer as an optical reference plane and platform upon which all necessary optical and electronic components are simultaneously assembled for a plurality of separate transceiver modules. In particular, a silicon wafer is utilized as a “platform” (interposer) upon which all of the components for a multiple number of transceiver modules are mounted or integrated, with the top surface of the silicon interposer used as a reference plane for defining the optical signal path between separate optical components.
|Vcsel pumped fiber optic gain systems|
Optical pump modules comprising vcsel and vcsel array devices provide high optical power for configuring fiber optic gain systems such as fiber laser and fiber amplifier particularly suited for high power operation. Pump modules may be constructed using two reflector or three reflector vcsel devices optionally integrated with microlens arrays and other optical components, to couple high power pump beams to a fiber output port.
|Optical component for the ir range with stress-compensated coating|
A method for designing an optical component for the ir range in which its desired technical characteristics are determined, and the optical component is simulated. The simulated optical component has a layer sequence of layers which are stacked one upon the other and have at least one low-index layer whose refractive index lies in a range from 1.35 to 1.7 and a high-index layer whose refractive index lies in a range from 3 to 5.
|Hybrid spectral domain optical coherence tomography line scanning laser ophthalmoscope|
An apparatus for imaging an eye includes a housing and a system of optical components disposed in the housing. The apparatus is capable of operating in a line scanning laser ophthalmoscope (lslo) mode and an optical coherence tomography (oct) mode.
|Multi-functional adaptive optics retinal imaging|
An optical apparatus includes a system of optical components capable of operating in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (slo) mode and an optical coherence tomography (oct) mode. The system of optical components includes a first optical module for the slo mode, a second optical module for the oct mode, and a first scanning device.
|Urethane-based optical component and manufacturing process therefor|
The present invention relates to a urethane optical member containing at least one kind of structures represented by the following formulae (1) and (2) in a structure constituting the optical member, and a method for producing the same.. .
|Liquid displacing optical coupling assemblies|
According to various embodiments, an optical assembly may include a ferrule element having a fiber guiding portion separated from an in-wall locating feature by an access region, and a lens element positioned opposite access region and aligned with the in-wall locating feature. The optical assembly also includes an optical component coupled to and extending through the fiber guiding portion and the access region such that a proximal end of the optical component is positioned within the in-wall locating feature.
|Illumination device and display unit|
An illumination device includes: a light source; an optical component provided separately from the light source; a holding member holding the light source and the optical component; and a variable pressing member variably pressing the optical component against the holding member.. .
|Disassembling device for lens module|
A disassembling device for lens module which has a lens barrel and at least one optical component received in the lens barrel. The disassembling device includes a carrying platform, a cylindrical cutting tool, a cutting tool holder, and a driving device.
|Hand-held vital signs monitor|
The invention features a vital sign monitor that includes: 1) a hardware control component featuring a microprocessor that operates as interactive, icon-driven gui on an lcd; and, 2) a sensor component that connects to the control component through a shielded coaxial cable. The sensor features: 1) an optical component that generates a first signal; 2) a plurality electrical components (e.g.
|Adhesive structure of optical component, manufacturing method thereof, and image output device|
An adhesive structure of an optical component includes a horizontal surface and a vertical surface. In a structure in which an optical component is adhered to a chassis having the horizontal surface and the vertical surface, an adhesive force per unit area of the vertical surface is higher than that per unit area of the horizontal surface..
|Method of coating liquid optically clear adhesives onto rigid substrates|
A method for making an optical assembly is disclosed. The method involves disposing a liquid optically clear composition with a coating head.
|Optical signal processing apparatus, transmission apparatus, and optical signal processing method|
An optical signal processing apparatus includes: an optical frequency comb generation unit configured to generate an optical frequency comb; an extraction unit configured to extract a plurality of optical components having a certain frequency interval between the optical components from the optical frequency comb; and an optical carrier generation unit configured to multiplex the plurality of optical components with reference light to thereby generate an optical carrier having a center frequency away from the center frequency of the reference light by an integer multiple of the frequency interval.. .
|Device and method for imaging an ocular fundus|
An appliance for recording an image of an ocular fundus includes an irradiating device with a radiation source and optical components for generating an illumination strip. A scanning device is set up to cause a scanning movement of the illumination strip for the purpose of scanning the ocular fundus.
|Methods and apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet light having contamination protection|
An apparatus for use with extreme ultraviolet (euv) light comprising a) a duct having a first end opening, a second end opening and an intermediate opening intermediate the first end opening the second end opening, b) an optical component disposed to receive euv light from the second end opening or to send light through the second end opening, and c) a source of low pressure gas at a first pressure to flow through the duct, the gas having a high transmission of euv light, fluidly coupled to the intermediate opening. In addition to or rather than gas flow the apparatus may have a) a low pressure gas with a heat control unit thermally coupled.
|Multichip wafer level package (wlp) optical device|
Optical devices are described that integrate multiple heterogeneous components in a single, compact package. In one or more implementations, the optical devices include a carrier substrate having a surface that includes two or more cavities formed therein.
|System, interface devices, use of the interface devices and method for eye surgery|
A laser system for eye surgery comprises an eye-surgical laser apparatus and a set of interface devices. The eye-surgical laser apparatus has optical components for providing pulsed focused laser radiation with radiation properties matched to the generation of photodisruptions in human eye tissue and a control unit for positional control of the radiation focus of the laser radiation.
|Pressure-sensitive adhesive layer for optical use, pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet, optical component and touch panel|
Provided are an optical component capable of suppressing the occurrence of undulations, having an excellent corrosion inhibition effect while maintaining a high level of adhesion reliability and transparency, as well as a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer and a pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet that can produce such an optical component efficiently and at a low cost. The present invention provides an optical pressure-sensitive adhesive layer comprising a base polymer and a rust inhibitor, characterized in that the base polymer does not or substantially does not contain an acid group-containing monomer as a constituent monomer component, and that an 85° c.
|Fixing structure of optical component, fixing method of optical component, optical pick-up device, and module device with light sources of rgb three primary colors|
A fixing structure of an optical component is composed of a device chassis; a holder holding an optical component; first and second plate parts for joint to the device chassis and a connecting part of both the plate parts are formed in the holder; a plurality of joint holes are formed in the second plate part; a u-groove into which the connecting part of the holder is fitted and a plurality of through-holes are formed in the device chassis; and an adhesive that is extended in a circular columnar shape and is made by inserting the holder into the u-groove of the device chassis, and applying a uv-curing adhesive in such a manner that the uv-curing adhesive is bonded to the first plate part of the holder and is continuous to the inside of the joint hole via the inside of the through-hole, and radiating uv light along the through-hole.. .
|Monolithic optical components with integrated flexures|
An optical element includes a monolithic body portion, the monolithic body portion having an inner body portion, an outer body portion extending at least partially around the inner body portion, and exactly three flexural hinges connecting the inner body portion to the outer body portion. One of the inner body portion and the outer body portion defines an optical active portion configured to reflect, refract, or diffract light, and the other of the inner body portion and outer body portion defines a mount portion..
|Detection systems and methods using coherent anti-stokes raman spectroscopy|
Systems and methods for remote and/or portable detection are provided. The system can include a source of coherent laser pulses, components for converting the coherent laser pulses into first beam pulses at a first wavelength value, second beam pulses at a second wavelength value, and third beam pulses at a third wavelength value.
|Pressure-sensitive adhesive composition, pressure-sensitive adhesive layer, pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet, optical component and touch panel|
Provided are an optical component having an excellent corrosion inhibition effect while maintaining a high level of adhesion reliability and transparency, as well as a pressure-sensitive adhesive composition and a pressure-sensitive adhesive sheet that can produce such an optical component efficiently and at a low cost. The pressure-sensitive adhesive composition according to the present invention includes a rust inhibitor and a base polymer, characterized in that the base polymer does not or substantially does not contain an acid group-containing monomer as a constituent monomer component.
The invention provides an optical connector for coupling with a complementary optical connector and for supporting an optical component. The connector comprises a cover moveable between a first and second position.
|Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography system for imaging of biological tissue|
A dual-modality apparatus for imaging of biological tissue includes a reflectance confocal microscopy (rcm) imaging apparatus and an optical coherence tomography (oct) imaging apparatus. A first optical component reflects a first beam of light provided by a rcm imaging apparatus towards a sample and passes a second beam of light provided by an oct imaging apparatus towards the sample, such that the first and second beam of lights share at least a portion of an imaging path..
|Manufacturing method of semiconductor device|
An optical component is fixed precisely on a sensor chip. After a sensor chip including a front surface having a sensor plane with a plurality of light receiving elements is mounted face-up over a wiring substrate, an adhesive is disposed on the front surface of the sensor chip at a plurality of positions, and a plurality of spacers having adherence is formed by curing this adhesive.
|Optical component, method and application|
Each of an optical component, a laser apparatus that includes the optical component and a method for operating the laser apparatus uses a particular reflective material layer located and formed over a substrate at a particular thickness for providing the optical component, the laser apparatus and the method for operating the laser apparatus with sufficient imperviousness to laser filaments under particular energy density fluence considerations. A particular reflective material layer comprises gold or a gold alloy.
|Infrared optical sensor incorporating a transmission measuring cell|
Disclosed is an infrared optical sensor for the continuous analysis of a liquid flowing in a pipe. The sensor includes, in a housing, a central section of duct through which the liquid to be analyzed flows, and a spectral analysis device using a light beam, including an infrared source which emits a signal which is received by a receiving device having passed through the liquid, an optical component which allows the light beam to pass through the liquid, and a support plate which carries the infrared source and the receiving device.
|Vertical electro-optical component and method of fabricating the same|
A vertical electro-optical component and a method for forming the same are provided. The vertical electro-optical component includes a substrate, a first electrode layer formed on the substrate, a patterned insulating layer formed on the first electrode layer, a metal layer formed on the patterned insulating layer, a semiconductor layer formed on the first electrode layer, and a second electrode layer formed on the semiconductor layer, wherein the semiconductor layer encapsulates the patterned insulating layer and the metal layer.
|Electro-optical assembly fabrication|
A flip-chip bonder fabricates an optical assembly by horizontally positioning a flexible portion of a substrate including a waveguide with the waveguide exposed at one end edge of the substrate; bending a portion of the flexible substrate to place the waveguide exposed end in approximately a vertical position; vertically positioning a bond head containing an optical component upon the waveguide exposed substrate edge to optically mate the optical component with the exposed waveguide; and fixably mounting the optical component to the substrate edge.. .
A modulation unit for a quantum communication system, wherein said modulation unit comprises an optical component configured to cause a delay between photons with different polarisation modes and a phase modulator, the optical component comprising a birefringent optical material, wherein the birefringent optical material supports the transmission of photons with a first polarisation mode and a second polarisation mode, wherein the optical path length for photons propagating with the first polarisation mode is different to the optical path length of photons propagating with the second polarisation mode, photons with the first polarisation mode having an orthogonal polarisation to those with the second polarisation mode, the phase modulator being configured to apply a further phase difference between photons with the first and second polarisation mode which pass through said modulation unit.. .