|| List of recent Metallic-related patents
|Thermal expansive aluminum guide roller and production method thereof|
A thermal expansive aluminum guide roller includes: an aluminum guide roller base, wherein the aluminum guide roller base is coated by an irony layer, the irony layer is coated by a hard metallic layer. Preferably, the hard metallic layer is a nickel layer or a titanium layer.
|Optical sensor for analyte detection|
Devices, systems, and methods for detection of an analyte in a sample are disclosed. In some embodiments, an optical sensor can include a metallic layer and a plurality of dielectric pillars extending through the metallic layer.
|Monolithic metallic self-ligating bracket with locking catch devices|
A monolithic metallic self-ligating bracket with a locking catch device is provided. The bracket includes a base, at least one tie wing and at least one locking catch device placed on one surface of the base.
|Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries|
An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 v vs.
|Negative electrode terminal for battery and method for producing negative electrode terminal for battery|
A negative electrode terminal for a battery in which a first metal layer and a second metal layer hardly separate from each other is provided by inhibiting an intermetallic compound from being formed between the first metal layer and the second metal layer. This negative electrode terminal (8) for a battery is composed of a clad material formed by bonding a first metal layer (80), made of al, including a first region connected with a battery terminal connecting plate and an adjacent second region on the same surface side as the first region and a second metal layer (81), made of ni, connected with battery negative electrodes, while the second metal layer is arranged to be stacked on the first metal layer in the second region of the first metal layer..
|Pouch-type battery cell|
In an aspect, a battery cell includes a stack that contains at least one anode and at least one cathode, a pouch containing the stack and electrolyte, and anode and cathode terminals. The pouch includes first and second films, each including a metallic main barrier layer and a sealing layer.
|Liquid crystalline composition for use in a foodstuff article|
A shaped part that is formed from a polymer composition that contains a liquid crystalline polymer and a metallic pigment is provided. By selectively controlling the type and relative concentration of these components, the polymer composition and shaped parts formed therefrom can have a metallic-like appearance.
|Liquid crystalline composition with a metallic appearance|
A polymer composition that contains a liquid crystalline polymer and a metallic pigment formed from metal particles and a carrier resin is provided. The polymer composition also contains an organophosphorous antioxidant that can help reduce the production of odorous compounds at high temperatures.
|Press platen or endless belt having a sandwich-type structure|
The present invention relates to a press platen (1) or endless belt for embossing materials, in particular wooden materials or plastics materials. In order to considerably reduce the production costs and the use of material, it is proposed according to the invention that use is made of a sandwich body which consists of a carrier body (10) and an embossing body (11), wherein said bodies are connected together in a firm and planar manner via a magnetically active and/or metallic adhesive agent (12).
|Bimetallic turbine shroud and method of fabricating|
A bimetallic ring for use as a turbine shroud in a gas turbine engine. The bimetallic ring forms a sealing surface as a hot gas flow path boundary in the engine.
|Coupled plasmonic waveguides and associated apparatuses and methods|
An apparatus and corresponding method in which the apparatus includes a dielectric waveguide and a metallic waveguide. The dielectric waveguide has an effective mode index and a longitudinal dimension.
|Power module and power conversion apparatus using same|
A power module includes a plurality of semiconductor devices constituting upper/lower arms of an inverter circuit, a plurality of conductive plates arranged to face electrode surfaces of the semiconductor devices and a module case configured to accommodate the semiconductor devices and conductive plates, wherein the module case includes a heat-radiation member made of plate-like metal and facing a surface of the conductive plate and a metallic frame body having an opening that is closed by the heat-radiation member, and wherein a heat-radiation fin unit having a plurality of heat-radiation fins vertically arranged thereon is provided at a center of the heat-radiation member, and a joint portion with the frame body is provided at an peripheral edge of the heat-radiation member, and the heat radiation member has a heat conductivity higher than that of the frame body, and the frame body has a higher rigidity than that of the heat-radiation member.. .
|Illuminating device and method for manufacturing the same|
A method for manufacturing an illuminating device includes steps of: forming an electrical conductive circuit on a metallic substrate, arranging light-emitting elements on the metallic substrate to be electrically connected with the electrical conductive circuit, covering a transparent cap on each of the light-emitting elements, fixing an electrical connector to the metallic substrate to be electrically connected to the electrical conductive circuit, forming a transparent body outside the transparent caps, the metallic substrate and the electrical conductive circuit by means of an over-molding process; forming a lamp cover outside the transparent body, the metallic substrate and the electrical connector by means of an over-molding process. An illuminating device is further provided, thereby prevents the light-emitting elements from suffering damage due to the temperature and pressure of the over-molding process, and increasing the brightness of the light emitted by the light-emitting elements..
|Spacer-modified graphene electrode for supercapacitor|
A spacer-modified nano graphene platelet electrode, comprising: (a) multiple nano graphene platelets or sheets having an average thickness smaller than 10 nm; and (b) discrete, non-metallic nano-scaled particles that are disposed between two graphene platelets or sheets to serve as a spacer. In such a spacer-modified graphene electrode, large amounts of electrolyte-accessible pores are formed, enabling the formation of large amounts of electric double layer charges in a supercapacitor, which exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacitance..
|Liquid crystal medium composition and liquid crystal display panel manufactured with same|
The present invention provides a liquid crystal medium composition and a liquid crystal display panel manufactured with same. The liquid crystal medium composition includes a negative type liquid crystal material, a polymerizable monomer, a sensitizer, and stabilizer.
An electronic device including a core, at least a wire and a magnetic material is provided. The core includes a pillar, a top board and a bottom board.
|Cylinder head gasket|
A cylinder head gasket includes a metallic gasket layer having through-openings and, at its peripheral outer margin, a first sealing element for providing a seal. The first sealing element forms a sealing line extending circumferentially about the gasket layer and surrounding the through-openings.
A semiconductor structure includes a silicon substrate, a titanium layer, a nickel layer, a silver layer and a metallic adhesion layer, wherein the silicon substrate comprises a back surface, and the titanium layer comprises an upper surface. The titanium layer is formed on the back surface, the nickel layer is formed on the upper surface, the silver layer is formed on the nickel layer, and the metallic adhesion layer is formed between the nickel layer and the silver layer..
|Dual-phase intermetallic interconnection structure and method of fabricating the same|
Provided are a dual-phase intermetallic interconnection structure and a fabricating method thereof. The dual-phase intermetallic interconnection structure includes a first intermetallic compound, a second intermetallic compound, a first solder layer, and a second solder layer.
|Nanostructured silicide composites for thermoelectric applications|
The present invention provides a method of preparing a nanocomposite thermoelectric material. The method includes heating a reaction mixture of a semiconductor material and a metal complex to a temperature greater than the decomposition temperature of the metal complex.
|Methods to synthesize nipt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of nipt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for co2 reforming of methane|
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for nipt nanoparticles, compositions and supports including nipt nanoparticles, methods of making nipt nanoparticles, methods of supporting nipt nanoparticles, methods of using nipt nanoparticles, and the like.. .
|Combined method for drilling a layer system, in which mechanical working and edm working are performed|
A method including mechanical removal and electrical discharge machining (edm) working allowing symmetrical or asymmetrical holes to be produced with exact contours in a layer system including a metallic substrate and a non-metallic outermost layer is provided. In a first step, an outer region of the hole is worked by mechanical removal.
|Brake lining for railway vehicles and disc brake equipped with the same|
A disc brake for railway vehicles includes a brake disc fixed to a wheel or an axle of a railway vehicle and a brake lining configured to be pressed against a frictional surface of the brake disc by a brake caliper. The brake lining includes a plurality of friction members arranged to be spaced from each other, each of the friction members having a surface that faces the frictional surface of the brake disc, a metallic backing secured to back surfaces of the friction members, and a base plate supporting the friction members on the back surface side via spring members.
|Electrical components and methods and systems of manufacturing electrical components|
A method of manufacturing an electrical component includes providing a substrate, applying an insulating layer on the substrate, applying a circuit layer on the insulating layer, irradiating the insulating layer with an electron beam to transform the insulating layer, and irradiating the circuit layer with an electron beam to transform the circuit layer. The substrate may be a metallic substrate that is highly thermally conductive.
|Electrical components and methods and systems of manufacturing electrical components|
A method of manufacturing an electrical component includes providing an electrically insulating substrate having an outer surface, applying a coated structure on the outer surface and irradiating the coated structure with an electron beam to form an electrical conductor on the substrate. The irradiating may include heating the coating layer to melt the coating layer to form the electrical conductor.
|Platinum based alloys|
An article made of an alloy of the general formula pt1-a-bma(b1-xmdx)b in which i) m stands for one or a mixture of metallic element(s) of the group zr, ti, fe, ni, co, cu, pd, ag, al; ii) md stands for one or a mixture of several metalloids of the group si, p, c, s, as, ge; iii) a is smaller than 0.2; iv) b is comprised between 0.2 and 0.5; v) x is comprised between 0 and 0.8; vi) the overall p content, if present, is less than 10 atomic percent the proportions of the elements forming the alloy having been selected to confer a hardness of at least 400 hv, a melting point below 1000° c. And improved processibility to the alloy..
|Bulk nickel-phosphorus-boron glasses bearing molybdenum|
The disclosure provides ni—mo—p—b, ni—mo—nb—p—b, and ni—mo—nb—mn—p—b alloys capable of forming metallic glass objects. The metallic glass objects can have lateral dimensions in excess of 1 mm and as large as 3 mm or larger.
|Dye-sensitized solar cell|
The invention provides a dye-sensitized solar cell including: a translucent tube-shaped vessel having sealing portions at both ends thereof, a photoelectrode, a collective electrode, and a counter electrode, the photoelectrode, the collective electrode, and the counter electrode being provided in the interior of the tube-shaped vessel; external leads electrically connected respectively to the collective electrode and the counter electrode, and electrolytic solution filled in the interior of the tube-shaped vessel, wherein remaining of air bubbles cause by evaporation of the electrolytic solution when hermetically sealing the tube-shaped vessel after having filled with the electrolytic solution is avoided, whereby preferable power generation efficiency is achieved. At least one of the external leads is formed of a metallic tube, the metallic tube is sealed by the sealing portion, and a projecting end portion of the metallic tube is hermetically sealed..
|Solar collector, collector element, building roof, building, and solar energy recovery system|
The invention relates to a solar collector (1) comprising a collector element plane comprising a set of parallel metallic collector elements (2) for collecting solar energy. The collector element plane, on its side to be arranged to face the sun, comprises a set of parallel, elongated ridges (r, r) formed by the metallic collector elements (2), and elongated depressions (v) between the ridges (r, r), and that at least some of the ridges (r, r) comprise therein a channel (3) for a heat transfer medium.
|Gas generator and assembling method thereof|
A metallic cup of constant inner diameter covering the igniter to define a charging chamber. The igniter assembly includes a main body, including an ignition portion and a electro-conductive pin integrated with a metallic collar by a resin.
|Process for the improvement of reducibility of ore pellets|
The present invention discloses a new process for the improvement of reducibility of iron ore pellets comprising the steps of preparing a raw material mixture which contain metallic ni powder, pelletizing the said mixture obtained, burning the said raw pellets and reducing the said burnt pellets under reducing conditions with presence of ch4.. .
|Connection assembly for connecting metallic and plastic components and method of connecting plastic and metallic components|
A connection assembly for attaching metallic and plastic components by a heat staking operation includes a first component, a second component, a compressible protrusion, an annular collar, and a deformable stud. The first component is formed of a metallic material and includes an inner surface.
|Clip assembly for use holding sinuous springs|
A piece of furniture (10) includes a rectangular frame (12) for supporting a plurality of sinuous springs (20). A plurality of clip assemblies (18) are secured to opposed side walls (14) of frame (12).
|Process for producing composite materials|
The present invention relates to a process for producing a composite material composed of at least one inorganic or organometallic phase and one organic polymer phase with aromatic or heteroaromatic structural units, wherein homo- or copolymerization of the monomers of the formula i is performed in the presence of a base selected from organic nitrogen bases and inorganic or organic oxo bases and fluoride salts.. .
|Reducing insoluble deposit formation in ethanol production|
The present inventors have surprisingly discovered that phytic acid tenaciously precipitates with soluble metals in food or fuel ethanol-processing fluid, producing insoluble organometallic salt deposit or scale on the processing equipment that must be removed in order to facilitate further ethanol processing. The present invention relates to converting phytic acid salts or phytates to inorganic phosphates to improve metal solubility and reduce deposition within processing equipment..
|Porous uo2 sintered pellet for electroreduction process, and preparation method thereof|
Porous uo2 sintered pellets to be fed into an electrolytic reduction process for the purpose of metallic nuclear fuel recovery, include one or more hollow spaces formed from the surfaces toward the interiors thereof. When the porous uo2 sintered pellets are used in the electrolytic reduction process, the efficiency increases..
|Method for manufacture and coating of nanostructured components|
The synthesis of nanostructures uses a catalyst that may be in the form of a thin film layer on a substrate. Precursor compounds are selected for low boiling point or already exist in gaseous form.
|Method for modification of the surface and subsurface regions of metallic substrates|
A method for surface engineering a metal substrate involves mixing precursor powders with a polymer binder to create a coating mix and coating the substrate with the coating mix. The substrate is then heated via induction heating, with the frequency and duration of the heating being controlled so as to cause a reaction of the precursor powders to create one or more types of ceramics or intermetallics, evaporate the polymer binder, melt a portion of the substrate, and cause the synthesized compounds to mix with the substrate and form a compositionally graded surface modification.
|Nanoparticle - biocide treatment of biofilms|
A system of stabilized metallic nanoparticles is described that includes metallic nanoparticles coated with a hydrophilic polymer that has been reacted with a catechol-based ligand. Also described are stable, metallic nanoparticles that can be used alone or in conjunction with biocides, antibiotics, or other treatment systems in a method to disrupt a biofilm and facilitate its removal from a surface.
|Image forming apparatus and image forming program|
There is provided an image forming apparatus including: a formation unit that forms an image using a color material, on a medium; a fusing unit that fixes the image formed on the medium; and a control unit that controls to perform both of a first fusing and a second fusing on the medium, wherein the first fusing is a fixation in which a first image is formed by using a color material with a metallic color and the first image foamed is fixed, the second fusing is a fixation in which a second image is formed by using a color material with another color than the metallic color and the second image formed is fixed, and the first image and the second image are overlapped.. .
|Electrical storage device|
An electric double-layer capacitor having a capacitor element, a package defining a closed space accommodating the capacitor element, and electrolytic solution loaded in the closed space. The package includes a body and a lid, and the body has a metallic portion and a resin portion.
|Method and equipment for quantum vacuum energy extraction|
Embodiments of the present invention comprise different methods and equipment for efficiently and relatively inexpensively producing casimir cavities for use in quantum vacuum energy extraction. The methods include without limitation, sintering; submicron porous filter materials; web roll-to-roll produced mesh or foil layers; nanotube arrays; web roll-to-roll produced porous membranes such as graphene, metallically doped; web roll-to-roll produced metallic crystals with self assembling arrays of nano-channels; three-dimensional prototyping; charged particle deposition; metal wire bundles; metal tube bundles; and metallically doped or metallically coated glass or polymer wire bundles..
|Equipment for quantum vacuum energy extraction|
Embodiments of the present invention comprise different equipment for efficiently and relatively inexpensively producing casimir cavities for use in quantum vacuum energy extraction. The equipment includes without limitation, sintered materials; submicron porous filter materials; web roll-to-roll produced mesh or foil layers; nanotube arrays; web roll-to-roll produced porous membranes such as graphene, metallically doped; web roll-to-roll produced metallic crystals with self assembling arrays of nano-channels; materials produced by three-dimensional prototyping; materials produced by charged particle deposition; metal wire bundles; metal tube bundles; and metallically doped or metallically coated glass or polymer wire bundles..
|Antenna structure with an effective serial connecting capacitance|
In an antenna structure having a serial connected capacitance effect, mainly a metallic planar antenna is provided thereon at least with a first metallic plane board, and a second metallic plane board being close to but not connected to the first metallic plane board to form the effect of capacitance in serial connecting. And more, the antenna structure further has an extension arm made from a microstrip extended from the antenna or the second metallic plane board, and can be optionally grounded or not grounded, for the purpose of adjusting the impedance value of the antenna structure..
|Nmr sample containment|
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer for examination of a sample under pressure has a coolant vessel containing a radio-frequency coil cooled by coolant in the vessel while located within the magnetic field of the spectrometer. A pressurizable sample holder comprises a nonmagnetic pressure retaining tube formed of electrically insulating matrix material containing electrically insulating reinforcing filaments.
A spark plug with both improved load life performance and improved radio-noise-preventing property, wherein the spark plug has a resistor containing a ti component. The spark plug includes a circular columnar insulator having a through hole; a center electrode; a terminal shell; and a resistor provided in the through hole and between the terminal shell and the center electrode.
|Composite metal foam and methods of preparation thereof|
The present invention is directed to composite metal foams comprising hollow metallic spheres and a solid metal matrix. The composite metal foams show high strength, particularly in comparison to previous metal foams, while maintaining a favorable strength to density ratio.
|Protective enclosure for electronic device|
A protective cover for an electronic device that has an interactive control panel includes a protective shell having a first member and a second member. The second member is configured to join with the first case.
|High temperature conveyor belt|
A high temperature conveyor belt is provided having a non-metallic conveying surface which will not scratch, abrade or otherwise mar the surface of a product being carried on the belt through a furnace and which will not contaminate the product. In one embodiment, the conveyor comprises a high temperature fabric belt attached to a metal belt which may be a conventional woven metal conveyor belt.
|Electrical connecting element having nano-twinned copper, method of fabricating the same, and electrical connecting structure comprising the same|
An electrical connecting element, a method of fabricating the same, and an electrical connecting structure comprising the same are disclosed. The method of fabricating the electrical connecting structure having twinned copper of the present invention comprises steps of: (a) providing a first substrate; (b) forming a nano-twinned copper layer on part of a surface of the first substrate; (c) forming a solder on the nano-twinned copper layer of the first substrate; and (d) reflowing the nano-twinned cu layer and solder to produce a solder joint, wherein at least part of the solder reacts with the nano-twinned copper layer to produce an intermetallic compound (imc) layer which comprises a cu3sn layer, this invention reduces the voids formation in the interface between the intermetallic compound and the solder, and then enhances the reliability of solder joints..
|Non-metallic slips having inserts oriented normal to cone face|
A slip assembly for a downhole tool, such as a composite plug, has a slip body and at least one insert. The slip body has an incline at one end that interfaces with an inclined surface of a cone.
Heat exchanger (1) having a housing (9), having a first fluid port (6, 7) and having a second fluid port (7, 6), wherein the housing (9) is in fluid communication with a fluid source via the first fluid port (6, 7) and the second fluid port (7, 6) and can be traversed by a flow of a fluid, characterized in that the housing (9) is of multi-part design and is formed by a housing upper part (3) and a trough-like housing lower part (2), wherein the housing lower part (2) has a base region (7) and an at least partially encircling turned-up edge region (6), wherein the housing upper part (3) or the housing lower part (2) is formed from a plastic and the respective other housing part (3, 2) is formed from a plastic, a metallic material or a fiber composite material.. .
Heat exchanger having a housing, having a fluid inlet and having a fluid outlet, wherein the heat exchanger is in fluid communication via the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet with a fluid circuit, having a flow-guiding element in the interior of the housing, wherein the housing is formed from a substantially planar housing upper part and a substantially trough-like housing lower part, wherein the housing lower part has a base region and an encircling side wall, wherein the housing lower part is formed by a supporting structure and an encasement and the supporting structure is at least partially surrounded by the encasement, wherein the supporting structure is formed from a metallic material, and the encasement is formed substantially from a plastic, wherein the housing upper part is formed from a plastic and the housing lower part is connected to the housing upper part substantially by means of plastic-on-plastic contact.. .
|Optimized multi-stage inductive melting of amorphous alloys|
Described herein is a method of melting a bulk metallic glass (bmg) feedstock, comprising: heating at least a portion of the bmg feedstock to temperatures slightly below a solidus temperature of the bmg, wherein the portion remains a solid at the temperatures slightly below the solidus temperature and wherein a temperature distribution of the portion is essentially uniform; heating the portion of the bmg feedstock to temperatures above a liquidus point.. .
|Continuous amorphous feedstock skull melting|
Described herein is a method of melting a bulk metallic glass (bmg) feedstock, comprising: feeding the bmg feedstock into a crucible; melting a first portion of the bmg feedstock to form molten bmg, while maintaining a second portion of the bmg feedstock solid; wherein the second portion and the crucible hold the molten bmg.. .
|Tool and method for bonding layers of a metallic axisymmetric structure having complex curvatures|
A tool and method for bonding layers of a shell by the differential pressure bonding process. The tool and method includes a plurality of separable mandrel segments that combine to form a mandrel having a longitudinal axis, an outer surface, an upper end, and at least one substantially continuous inner surface.
|Compositions having aluminum particles dispersed in a continuous phase|
A method of forming composite materials includes mixing a first metal precursor with a chelating agent to form a first metal-chelate complex. The first metal-chelate complex is added to a polymer binder having terminating hydroxyl groups to form a polymer binder-first metal-chelate.
|Coating of bulk metallic glass (bmg) articles|
Exemplary embodiments described herein relate to methods and apparatus for forming a coating layer at least partially on surface of a bmg article formed of bulk solidifying amorphous alloys. In embodiments, the coating layer may be formed in situ during formation of a bmg article and/or post formation of a bmg article.
|Textile sleeve with twisted hybrid fill yarn and method of construction thereof|
A textile sleeve for routing and protecting elongate members and method of construction thereof is provided. The sleeve includes an elongate wall having opposite edges extending parallel to a central axis.
|Long distance optical fiber sensing system and method|
A long-distance fiber optic monitoring system having a sensing unit and an analyzer that is remotely located from the sensing unit is provided. The sensing unit comprises a source of optical energy for injecting optical energy into the fiber optical cable and an optical detector configured to detect an optical return signal from the optical fiber.
|Method for producing modified conjugated diene-based polymer, and method for producing polymer composition|
The present invention relates to a method for producing a modified conjugated diene-based polymer, the method comprising a step of reacting a conjugated diene-based polymer with an organometallic compound, and a step of reacting the resulting product and an epoxy compound.. .
|Method for producing modified conjugated diene-based polymer, and method for producing polymer composition|
The present invention related to a method for producing a modified conjugated diene-based polymer, the method comprising a step of reacting a conjugated diene-based polymer with an organometallic compound, and a step of reacting the resulting product and a compound containing a nitrogen atom and a carbonyl group.. .
An electrical connector, comprises: an insulative housing; a plurality of contacts received into the insulative housing and having a plurality of soldering portion extending rearwardly and beyond a rear surface of the insulative housing; a metallic shell enclosing the insulative housing; and a cover formed on a rear end of the insulative housing and the metallic shell and sealed the rear surface of the insulative housing.. .
|Method of depositing metallic layers based on nickel or cobalt on a semiconducting solid substrate; kit for application of said method|
The step coverage of the layer of nickel or cobalt obtained can be greater than 80%, which facilitates subsequent filling of the vias with copper by electrodeposition.. .
|Metallic wick assembly|
A metallic wick assembly includes at least one mesh member and a sleeve member. The at least one mesh member includes a first length defined between first and second ends thereof.
|Battery cell having a click spring area integrated into the housing coer plate|
A battery (e.g., lithium-ion) cell having fewer components than conventional cells. A metallic housing, having a winding element, two current collectors, and an electrolyte, is closed off in a gas- and pressure-tight manner with a cover assembly having a cover plate by which a housing opening is largely closed off.
|Methods of forming a metallic or ceramic article having a novel composition of functionally graded material and articles containing the same|
There is disclosed a method of making a metallic or ceramic component, such as a cutting or forming tool, from at least two distinct powder precursors. In one embodiment, the method comprising forming a first mixture comprised of a plurality of coated particles, such as tough-coated hard powder (tchp) composite particles created by encapsulating extremely hard core particles with very tough binder and structural materials, and at least one support powder, such as a carbide, typically wc—co.
Compositions containing certain organometallic oligomers suitable for use as spin-on, metal hardmasks are provided, where such compositions can be tailored to provide a metal oxide hardmask having a range of etch selectivity. Also provided are methods of depositing metal oxide hardmasks using the present compositions..
|Nanoimprinting master template and method for making|
A method for making a nanoimprinting master template uses a metallic etch stop layer for two etching steps. A layer of silicon dioxide is deposited on the etch stop layer and a first resist pattern of either concentric rings or radial spokes is formed on the silicon dioxide layer.