|| List of recent Liquefied Natural Gas-related patents
|Methods for fraccing oil and gas wells|
A method for stimulating or fraccing an oil or a natural gas well by adding a liquefied hydrocarbon such as liquid petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas, a proppant and a diluent such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen or mixtures thereof to the well. The order of addition is typically liquefied hydrocarbon then diluent but this order can be reversed and in other circumstances the liquefied hydrocarbon and diluent can be mixed together and fed to the well as a mixture..
|Method to maximize lng plant capacity in all seasons|
As described herein, a method and system for operating a liquefied natural gas (lng) plant are provided. The method and system also provide for domestic natural gas production.
|Method of producing natural gas from remote and/or isolated offshore reservoirs|
A method of producing natural gas from at least one reservoir, the method including the steps of producing the natural gas from the at least one reservoir; liquefying a first tranche of the natural gas to produce liquefied natural gas; and compressing a second tranche of the natural gas to produce a compressed natural gas.. .
|Particle-based systems for removal of pollutants from gases and liquids|
Systems, compositions, and methods for removing a substance or substances from a material, such as a gas or liquid material, are described. The compositions can comprise composite removal particles.
|System for supplying liquefied natural gas fuel|
A system for supplying lng fuel is disclosed. The system includes a fuel supplying line connected from an lng storage tank to a high pressure engine and a low pressure engine, respectively, a pump formed on the fuel supplying line, and configured to pressurize lng outputted from the lng storage tank to high pressure, a first heat exchanger formed on the fuel supplying line between the high pressure engine and the pump, and configured to heat the lng supplied from the pump, a second heat exchanger formed on the fuel supplying line between the low pressure engine and the lng storage tank, and configured to evaporate the lng in a liquid state supplied from the lng storage tank and a heat source supplying line configured to supply heat to the lng by supplying glycol water to the first heat exchanger and the second heat exchanger..
|System for supplying liquefied natural gas fuel|
The system heats glycol water using steam generated by a boiler and heating lng using the glycol water, thereby increasing efficiently the lng to temperature required for an engine. In addition, the system senses lng flowing to a glycol tank using a pressure sensor, etc.
|Power generation and lng production|
The present techniques are directed to a system and method for generating power and producing liquefied natural gas (lng). The system includes a power plant configured to generate power, wherein an exhaust gas from the power plant provides a gas mixture including nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
|Method of fracturing with liquefied natural gas|
The production of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon bearing formation is enhanced by introduction into the formation a non-aqueous fluid containing a liquefied natural gas.. .
Methods and system are provided for regasifying liquefied natural gas (lng). An exemplary method disclosed includes flowing at least a portion of an lng stream through an air separation unit (asu) to form at least a portion of a natural gas (ng) stream.
|System for supplying liquefied natural gas fuel|
Disclosed is an lng fuel supply system, including: a fuel supply line connected from an lng storing tank to an engine; a pump provided on the fuel supply line, and configured to change an lng to the lng in a supercooled liquid state by compressing the lng discharged from the lng storing tank at a high pressure; and a heat exchanger provided on the fuel supply line between the engine and the pump, and configured to phase change the lng in the supercooled liquid state to the lng in a supercritical state by heating the lng in the supercooled liquid state supplied from the pump.. .
|Process for floating liquified natural gas pretreatment|
A method of pretreating a natural gas stream for a floating liquefied natural gas plant is described. A natural gas feed stream is introduced into an amine absorption unit and a temperature swing adsorption unit located on a ship.
|Methods for liquefied natural gas fueling|
A method and apparatus for fueling the onboard storage tank of a vehicle with liquefied natural gas. A liquid cryogen such as liquid nitrogen is fed to a condensing unit to condense natural gas present in a fueling system.
|Gaseous fuel system, direct injection gas engine system, and method|
The disclosure describes an engine system having liquid and gaseous fuel systems, each of which injects fuel directly into an engine cylinder. A controller controls the pumping of a liquefied natural gas (lng) in the gaseous fuel system using variable speeds for reciprocally moving a pumping piston of a pumping element with a drive assembly.
|Gaseous fuel system, direct injection gas engine system, and method|
The disclosure describes an engine system having liquid and gaseous fuel systems, each of which injects fuel directly into an engine cylinder. A controller controls pumping of a liquefied natural gas (lng) in the gaseous fuel system.
|Integrated process for ngl (natural gas liquids recovery) and lng (liquefaction of natural gas)|
The invention relates to an integrated process and apparatus for liquefaction of natural gas and recovery of natural gas liquids. In particular, the improved process and apparatus reduces the energy consumption of a liquefied natural gas (lng) unit by using a portion of the already cooled overhead vapor from a fractionation column from an ngl (natural gas liquefaction) unit to, depending upon composition, provide, for example, reflux for fractionation in the ngl unit and/or a cold feed for the lng unit, or by cooling, within the ngl unit, a residue gas originating from a fractionation column of the ngl unit and using the resultant cooled residue gas to, depending upon composition, provide, for example, reflux/feed for fractionation in the ngl and/or a cold feed for the lng unit, thereby reducing the energy consumption of the lng unit and rendering the process more energy-efficient..
|Cryogenic tank assembly|
A cryogenic tank assembly includes a cryogenic tank having an internal volume that is configured to contain liquefied natural gas (lng). The cryogenic tank includes an inlet and an outlet that are each fluidly connected to the internal volume.
|Tank for fluid|
A tank for storing fluid, especially hydrocarbons including low temperature liquefied natural gas. The tank comprises tank walls defining an interior tank space, wherein at least one beam is provided in the interior tank space having at least one beam end connected to the tank wall.
|Systems and methods for distributed production of liquified natural gas|
This disclosure teaches systems and methods for distributed production of liquefied natural gas by utilizing refrigeration to reach the condensation of natural gas, removing of compression heat loads, sensible heat loads, and latent heat at ambient temperatures utilizes the stirling cycle, both refrigeration and thermal heating processes, for enabling cryogenic refrigeration and the portable production of lng. Generally, the natural gas may be supplied from existing or nearby pipelines and the lng production system itself may be powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
|Method and apparatus for high purity liquefied natural gas|
A novel method and system for liquefying and distilling natural gas into high purity liquid methane (lng) and ngl product streams. Heat exchangers and distillation towers are configured to produce high purity liquefied natural gas (lng) and ngl product streams, while also rejecting excess nitrogen contained in the inlet gas stream, utilizing liquid nitrogen as the process refrigerant.
|Method for liquefying natural gas with a mixture of coolant gas|
A method for liquefying a natural gas primarily including methane, preferably at least 85% of methane, the other components essentially including nitrogen and c2-c4 alkanes, in which the natural gas to be liquefied is liquefied by circulating at a pressure p0 no lower than the atmospheric pressure (patm), p0 preferably being higher than the atmospheric pressure, in at least one cryogenic heat-exchanger (ec1, ec2, ec3) by a counter-current closed-circuit circulation in indirect contact with at least one stream of coolant gas remaining in the compressed gaseous state at a pressure p1 that is entering the cryogenic heat-exchanger at a temperature t3′ that is lower than t3, t3 being the liquefaction temperature of the liquefied natural gas at the pressure p0 at the output of said cryogenic exchanger, characterised in that the coolant gas includes a mixture of nitrogen and at least one other component selected from among neon and hydrogen.. .
|Self-saturating liquefied natural gas delivery system utilizing hydraulic pressure|
Described herein are at least systems and methods for cryogenic fluid delivery which utilize pumpless delivery of cryogenic fluid. The systems and methods utilize hydraulic pressure, saturation pressure, or a combination of both hydraulic pressure and saturation pressure to deliver cryogen to a use device, such as an engine..
|Liquefied natural gas storage container and method for manufacturing the same|
Provided are an lng storage container with an inner shell, which is capable of efficiently storing lng or pressurized lng (plng) pressurized at a predetermined pressure and supplying the lng or plng to a consumption place, and capable of reducing manufacturing costs by minimizing the use of a metal having excellent low temperature characteristic, and a method for manufacturing the same. The lng storage container includes: an inner shell configured to store lng inside; an outer shell configured to enclose the outside of the inner shell such that a space is formed between the inner shell and the outer shell; a support installed in the space between the inner shell and the outer shell to support the inner shell and the outer shell; and a heat insulation layer part installed in the space between the inner shell and the outer shell and configured to reduce a heat transfer..
|Modular lng production facility|
A liquefied natural gas production facility and a method of designing and constructing a liquefied natural gas production facility are described. The facility includes space-apart modules for installation at a production location to form a production train including a major axis and a minor axis, each module including a module base for mounting a plurality of plant equipment associated with a selected function assigned to the module, the module base including a major axis and a minor axis.
|Multiple pump system|
A multiple pump system is disclosed. The multiple pump system may include a fluid tank and a multiple pump vessel connected to the fluid tank.
|Single stop shopping and fueling facility|
The system described provides a single stop shopping facility that is capable of providing not only various goods and services to a consumer, but also dispensing various types of fuel to meet the needs of different types of vehicles. The various types of fuel supported may include liquefied natural gas (“lng”), compressed natural gas (“cng”), hydrogen, electricity, fuel cells, bioalcohol fuels including ethanol, methanol, and butonal, biogas, biodiesel, or biomass fuels, as well as more traditional fuel types, such as gasoline and diesel fuel..
|Facilities for offshore liquefied natural gas floating storage with jack-up platform regasification unit|
Facilities for offshore liquefied natural gas (lng) floating storage with jack-up platform regasification unit, the facilities including: a jack-up unit comprising legs which have bottom part to be fixable to a sea bed and top part to be exposed to a surface of water, and a hull to be movable up and down with respect to the legs; a storage unit moored at the jack-up unit providing a space for storing lng; a regasification unit as a module which regasifies the lng supplied from the storage unit, installed on a top portion of the jack-up unit, separable from the jack-up unit; a utility unit comprising a power source and a sea water pump to supply power and sea water to the regasification unit; and a piping unit comprising unloading pipe for connecting the regasification unit and the storage unit and supplying pipe for carrying natural gas gasified by the regasification unit.. .
|Semi-closed loop lng process|
A semi-closed loop system for producing liquefied natural gas (lng) that combines certain advantages of closed-loop systems with certain advantages of open-loop systems to provide a more efficient and effective hybrid system. In the semi-closed loop system, the final methane refrigeration cycle provides significant cooling of the natural gas stream via indirect heat transfer, as opposed to expansion-type cooling.
|Attachment of insulating panels onto a supporting wall in a repeating pattern|
A sealed and insulating tank, notably for liquefied natural gas, includes, a supporting wall with anchor members disposed in a repeated pattern, a sealing barrier in contact with a product contained in the tank and a thermal insulation barrier disposed between the sealing barrier and the supporting wall, the thermal insulation barrier including a plurality of insulating panels disposed in the repeated pattern, each insulating panel being fixed to the supporting wall by an adhesive disposed on a lower surface of the insulating panel and one or more anchor members of the supporting wall each cooperating with a hole passing through the insulating panel. The number of anchor members per insulating panel is in the range 1 to 6, preferably 2 to 3.
|Methods for using liquefied natural gas for well stimulation|
A method for fraccing oil or gas wells to recover natural gas. Liquefied natural gas is vaporized to form a foam or dense fluid.
|Combined cycle power plant with co2 capture plant|
A combined cycle power plant includes a co2 capture system operatively integrated with a liquefied natural gas lng regasification system, where cold energy from the regasification process is used for cooling processes within the co2 capture system or processes associated with it. These cooling systems include systems for cooling lean or rich absorption solutions for the co2 capture or the cooling of flue gas.
|Lng tank and operation of the same|
Disclosed is a liquefied natural gas storage apparatus. The apparatus includes a heat insulated tank and liquefied natural gas contained in the tank.
|Cng delivery system with cryocooler and method of supplying purified cng|
A fuel gas delivery system is provided. The fuel gas delivery system includes a feed line configured to provide a natural gas stream and a cryocooler fluidly coupled to the feed line.
|Storage container for liquefied natural gas|
A lng storage container includes: an inner shell made of a metal withstanding a low temperature of the lng and configured to store the lng inside; an outer shell made of a steel withstanding an internal pressure of the inner shell and configured to enclosing the outside of the inner shell such that a space is formed between the inner shell and the outer shell; and a heat insulation layer part installed in the space between the inner shell and the outer shell and configured to reduce a heat transfer.. .
Methods and systems for regasifiing lng are provided. A method for regasifying liquefied natural gas (lng) includes providing heat to a lng regasification process from a power plant.
|Liquefied natural gas and hydrocarbon gas processing|
A process for recovering heavier hydrocarbons from a liquefied natural gas (lng) stream and a hydrocarbon gas stream is disclosed. The lng stream is heated to vaporize at least part of it, expanded, and supplied to a fractionation column at a first mid-column feed position.
|Device for sampling and vaporizing liquefied natural gas|
The device for sampling and vaporizing liquefied natural gas includes a circuit provided at one end with a device for collecting a sample of liquefied gas and conveying the sample to a measurement device. The circuit includes and passes through a device for vaporizing the sample.
|Method and arrangement for providing lng fuel for ships|
An arrangement for providing liquefied natural gas (lng) as fuel for propulsion of a ship (1, 6) having cargo tanks (2, 7) for liquefied gas comprises a source of lng (3, 8) and at least one first heat exchanger (41) for vaporizing and/or heating the lng directly or indirectly with a warmer medium (44). The warmer medium is boil-off gases from the cargo tanks (2, 7) being re-liquefied in the process..
|Method for producing pressurized liquefied natural gas, and production system used in same|
A method for producing pressurized liquefied natural gas and a production system therefor are provided. The method for producing pressurized liquefied natural gas includes: performing a dehydration process to remove water from natural gas supplied from a natural gas field, without a process of removing acid gas from the natural gas; and performing a liquefaction process to produce pressurized liquefied natural gas by liquefying the natural gas, which has undergone the dehydration process, at a pressure of 13 to 25 bar and a temperature of −120 to −95° c., without a process of fractionating natural gas liquid (ngl).
|Systems and methods for separating hydrocarbons using one or more dividing wall columns|
Methods and systems for separating hydrocarbons using one or more dividing wall columns are provided. The method can include introducing a hydrocarbon fluid to a first dividing wall column.
|Integration of a liquefied natural gas liquefier with the production of liquefied natural gas|
A method for integrating a liquefied natural gas liquefier system with production of liquefied natural gas from a methane-containing gas stream. The liquefied natural gas is produced by feeding a methane-containing gas stream through a heat exchanger to a distillation column and liquefying the natural gas while capturing the gaseous nitrogen.
|Liquefied natural gas plant with ethylene independent heavies recovery system|
This invention relates to a process and apparatus for liquefying natural gas. In another aspect, the invention concerns a liquefied natural gas (lng) facility employing an ethylene independent heavies recovery system..
|Ship for transporting a liquefied natural gas storage container|
An lng storage container carrier includes: one or more cargo holds provided on a hull such that upper portions thereof are opened; a plurality of first and second upper supports installed on the cargo holds in a width direction and a length direction to partition the upper portions of the cargo holds into a plurality of openings, wherein storage containers are vertically inserted into the openings and supported; and a lower support installed under the cargo holds and supporting the bottoms of the storage containers inserted into the openings. Accordingly, it is possible to efficiently and stably transport the storage containers storing lng or plng pressurized at a predetermined pressure.
|Simplified lng process|
A simplified method for production of a commercial supply liquefied natural gas (lng) supplied in a pressurized vessel includes taking a supply of natural gas including contaminants from a stranded well or from a pipe line and extracting from the supply gas water vapor and co2 in a fixed bed absorption system. In a first stage the supply gas is separated into first and second streams where the first stream contains all the cold energy available from the feed stream and sufficient of the contaminants are removed to meet a product specification for the composition of the lng supply.
|Method for refueling and operating natural gas fueled truck|
A method for operating a vehicle that provides refrigeration and is powered by an engine for burning liquefied natural gas. The vehicle contains on-board storage tanks for liquefied natural gas and liquid nitrogen.
|High-strength steel material having outstanding ultra-low-temperature toughness and a production method therefor|
The present invention provides steel containing manganese and nickel that is used as a structural material for a cryogenic storage container for liquefied natural gas (lng) or the like, and a manufacturing method thereof; and more particularly, to steel having good cryogenic temperature toughness and also high strength by adding low-cost mn instead of relatively expensive ni at an optimized ratio, refining a microstructure through controlled rolling and cooling, and precipitating retained austenite through tempering, and a manufacturing method of the steel. To achieve the object, the technical feature of the present invention is a method of manufacturing high-strength steel with cryogenic temperature toughness.
|Methods for storing cryogenic fluids in storage vessels|
A method for maintaining a subcooled bottom state or the natural convection current of a liquefied natural gas in a storage vessel by the use of an external heat exchanger. The liquefied natural gas is removed from the storage vessel and cooled in the external heat exchanger by a cryogenic fluid such as liquid nitrogen.
|Method for the modeling of cryogenic spills and pool fires on the maritime transportation of liquefied natural gas (lng)|
Mathematical modeling of the flow and spreading mechanics of a cryogenic fluid poured into the sea forming a pool, and the subsequent thermal plume coming from fires of turbulent diffusion, with conservative integral formulation considering the balance between the quantity poured from the ship and that which vaporizes in the pool. The contributions of the mechanisms of heat transfer at the interface between the substrate and the cryogenic film and the radiative feedback coming from the combustion in the lowest region of the thermal plume and the pool are taken into account.
|Dual fuel injector having fuel leak seals|
A dual fuel common rail fuel injector includes a first and second check needle used to selectively inject two different fuels such as diesel and liquefied natural gas. The fuel injector includes a fuel separator disposed in the interior cavity of the first check needle and is in sealing contact with the nozzle.
|Power and regasification system for lng|
The present invention provides a power and regasification system based on liquefied natural gas (lng), comprising a vaporizer by which liquid motive fluid is vaporized, said liquid motive fluid being lng or a motive fluid liquefied by means of lng; a turbine for expanding the vaporized motive fluid and producing power; heat exchanger means to which expanded motive fluid vapor is supplied, said heat exchanger means also being supplied with lng for receiving heat from said expanded fluid vapor, whereby the temperature of the lng increases as it flows through the heat exchanger means; a conduit through which said motive fluid is supplied from at least the outlet of said heat exchanger to the inlet of said; and a line for transmitting regasified lng.. .
|Method to produce liquefied natural gas (lng) at midstream natural gas liquids (ngls) recovery plants|
A method to recover natural gas liquids (ngls) from natural gas streams at ngl recovery plants. The present disclosure relates to methods using liquid natural gas (lng) as an external source of stored cold energy to reduce the energy and improve the operation of ngl distillation columns.
|Process and plant for the vaporization of liquefied natural gas and storage thereof|
A process and plant for the vaporization of liquefied natural gas includes obtaining electric energy during the vaporization operation by way of thermal exchange by transformation of an energy source for obtaining electric power.. .
|"flexible liquefied natural gas plant"|
The present techniques are directed to a flexible liquefied natural gas (lng) plant that may be tied to an external electric grid for importing or exporting electric power. Exemplary embodiments provide a method for producing lng that includes producing a base load capacity of refrigeration capacity for lng production from a first compression system.
|Systems and methods for integrated energy storage and cryogenic carbon capture|
The systems and methods integrate energy storage with cryogenic carbon capture, providing effective grid management and energy-efficient carbon capture capabilities to power plants. The systems store energy during off-peak demand by using off-peak energy to compress natural gas to form liquefied natural gas (lng) and storing the lng for use as a refrigerant.
|Floating liquefied natural gas pretreatment system|
A pretreatment system and method for a floating liquid natural gas (“flng”) facility are presented. The inlet natural gas stream flows through a membrane system to remove carbon dioxide and a heat exchanger, producing first and second cooled co2-depleted non-permeate streams.
|Liquefied natural gas and hydrocarbon gas processing|
A process for recovering ethane and heavier hydrocarbons from lng and a hydrocarbon gas stream is disclosed. The lng feed stream is divided into two portions.
|Method of processing feed streams containing hydrogen sulfide|
A method of processing feed streams high in hydrogen sulfide is provided. The method includes providing a feed gas stream that includes hydrocarbons and at least 5 vol % hydrogen sulfide.
|Method of processing feed streams containing hydrogen sulfide|
A method of processing feed streams containing significant quantities of hydrogen sulfide is provided. The method includes providing a feed gas stream that includes hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons.
|Systems and methods for using multiple cryogenic hydraulic turbines|
There is provided a system and method for producing liquefied natural gas (lng). An exemplary method includes flowing a high-pressure stream of lng through a first series of liquid turbines.
|Decision support method and system for project management of liquefied natural gas plant|
Provided are a decision support method and system for project management of a lng plant. In the decision support method, a plurality of stages corresponding to sequential processes performed for engineering, procurement & construction project management of the lng plant are determined decision items necessary to perform each of the plurality of stages are determined.
|Ngl extraction from liquefied natural gas|
A process of extraction of natural gas liquids from a liquefied natural gas stream is disclosed.. .
|Integrated lng gasification and power production cycle|
The present disclosure provides an integrated power generating system and method and liquefied natural gas (lng) vaporization system and method. More particularly, heat from a co2 containing stream from the power generating system and method can be used to heat the lng for re-gasification as gaseous co2 from co2 containing stream is liquefied.
|Liquefied natural gas cargo hold partition structure and partition sheet|
A barrier sheet for an lng cargo tank includes a first barrier sheet so as to form a secondary barrier of the cargo tank and a second barrier sheet attached on the first barrier sheet. Each of the first and second sheets includes first and second metal layers and a glass cloth layer interposed between the first and second layers and bonded to the first and second metal layers..
|Integrated ngl recovery in the production of liquefied natural gas|
Process for the liquefaction of natural gas and the recovery of components heavier than methane where natural gas is cooled and separated in a first distillation column into an overhead vapor enriched in methane and a bottoms stream enriched in components heavier than methane, where the first distillation column utilizes a liquefied methane-containing reflux stream. This reflux stream may be provided by a condensed portion of the overhead vapor or a portion of totally condensed overhead vapor that is subsequently warmed.
|Refrigeration vehicle and method for cooling its refrigeration space using a low-temperature-liquefied combustible gas|
The present invention relates to a refrigeration vehicle comprising at least one refrigeration space, which can be cooled via at least one supplemental heat exchanger. The supplemental heat exchanger in the refrigeration space is connected to other components, preferably via couplings and flexible lines, establishing a heat exchange loop being able to exchange heat with an evaporator for low-temperature liquefied combustible gas.
|Method for turndown of a liquefied natural gas (lng) plant|
A method for turndown of a liquefied natural gas (lng) plant, the plant including a liquefaction unit arranged in a flow path of the plant, includes removing lng from a first location in the flow path downstream of the liquefaction unit; vaporizing the removed lng, or heating the removed lng so that the removed lng is transformed to gas phase; and re-admitting the vaporized or transformed lng to the flow path at a second location upstream of the liquefaction unit. A corresponding lng plant is also provided..
|Method for the compression of boil-off gas|
The invention relates to a method for compression of boil-off gas produced in the storage of liquefied natural gas (lng), in which the boil-off gas is compressed in a single-stage or multistage manner and then fed to a further use. The boil-off gas (1) that is to be compressed undergoes a pressure elevation by means of at least one ejector (y) and then warmed (e2), before being compressed (v) in a single-stage or multistage manner> the motive gas (2) used for the ejector (y) is a substream of the compressed boil-off gas and/or a gas, the composition of which is substantially identical to or similar to that of the boil-off gas (1) and/or the addition of which to the boil-off gas does not adversely affect the intended use of the compressed boil-off gas..
|Method for start-up of a liquefied natural gas (lng) plant|
A method for start-up of a liquefied natural gas (lng) plant, the plant including a liquefaction unit arranged in a flow path of the plant, including removing lng from a first location in the flow path downstream of the liquefaction unit; vaporizing the removed lng, or heating the removed lng so that the removed lng is transformed to gas phase; and re-admitting the vaporized or transformed lng to the flow path at a second location upstream of the liquefaction unit. A corresponding lng plant is also provided..
|Method for transferring fluids between a first ship and a second ship, and transfer system for implementing said method|
A method for transferring fluids between a first ship, called a barge, and a second ship, called a shuttle, in which the shuttle is positioned at a pre-determined distance from the barge, and a flexible fluid transfer conduit is guided from the barge to the shuttle. The shuttle is placed in a position laterally offset from the barge and essentially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barge, and a fluid transfer system enables the shuttle to move in the lateral and longitudinal directions in relation to the barge, during a transfer.
|Lng (liquefied natural gas) and lin (liquid nitrogen) in transit refrigeration heat exchange system|
A heat exchanger includes a housing disposed in a first atmosphere and having an upstream end, a downstream end and a chamber within the housing; a metallic block disposed in the chamber and having a passageway therethrough and through which a cryogen can flow; and a heat pipe assembly in contact with the metallic block and extending to a second atmosphere which is separate from the first atmosphere for providing heat transfer at the second atmosphere.. .