This page is updated frequently with new Incident Light-related patent applications.
|Imaging apparatus and image sensor including the same|
An image sensor includes a substrate, thin lenses disposed on a first surface of the substrate and configured to concentrate lights incident on the first surface, and light-sensing cells disposed on a second surface of the substrate, the second surface facing the first surface, and the light-sensing cells being configured to sense lights passing through the thin lenses, and generate electrical signals based on the sensed lights. A first thin lens and second thin lens of the thin lenses are configured to concentrate a first light and a second light, respectively, of the incident lights onto the light-sensing cells, the first light having a different wavelength than the second light..
California Institute Of Technology
|Solar photovoltaic module|
A solar photovoltaic module (1) intended to receive incident light, said incident light comprising incident visible light and incident near infrared light, visible light being defined as light having a wavelength between 380 nm and 700 nm, excluding 700 nm and near infrared light is defined as light having a wavelength between 700 nm and 2000 nm, characterized in that said solar photovoltaic module (1) comprises: —a photovoltaic element (2), sensitive to near-infra red light, —at least a first infrared transmitting cover sheet (4), arranged to one side of said photovoltaic element (2), comprising: —infrared transmission means arranged to transmit at least 65% of said incident infrared light through said infrared transmitting cover sheet, —visible light transmission means arranged to transmit as less as possible incident light having wavelengths lower than 600 nm, preferably lower than 650 nm, more preferably lower than 700 nm, excluding the wavelength of 700 nm, through said infrared transmitting cover sheet (4), —reflection means arranged to reflect a portion of said incident visible light of said infrared transmitting cover sheet (4), to the side of said incident light.. .
Csem Centre Suisse D'electronique Et De Microtechnique Sa - Recherche Et DÉveloppement
|Organic light-emitting diode display|
An organic light-emitting diode display is disclosed. In one aspect, the display includes a substrate that includes a first sub-pixel region and a second sub-pixel region adjacent to the first sub-pixel region, and a first driving circuit and a second driving circuit respectively disposed in the first sub-pixel region and the second sub-pixel region.
Samsung Display Co., Ltd.
|Solid-state imaging device, manufacturing solid-state imaging device, and electronic apparatus|
A solid-state imaging device includes pixels each having a photoelectric conversion element for converting incident light to an electric signal, color filters associated with the pixels and having a plurality of color filter components, microlenses converging the incident light through the color filters to the photoelectric conversion elements, a light shielding film disposed between the color filter components of the color filters, and a nonplanarized adhesive film provided between the color filters and the light shielding film.. .
|Optical touch screen with a lossy dispersive ftir layer|
A touch sensitive screen arrangement includes an optically dispersive base plate and structures for transmitting light onto the base plate in response to an external body touching the screen at a touch point such that the location of incident light on the surface of the base plate is representative of the relative position of the touch point on the screen. The base plate captures and disperses light that is incident on it.
|Mirror micromechanical structure and related manufacturing process|
A mirror micromechanical structure has a mobile mass carrying a mirror element. The mass is drivable in rotation for reflecting an incident light beam with a desired angular range.
|Methods for farbricating double-lens structures|
A double-lens structure and a method for fabricating the same are provided. The double-lens structure includes a first lens structure formed of a color filter layer having a first refractive index and a second lens structure formed of a micro-lens material layer having a second refractive index and disposed on the first lens structure.
Visera Technologies Company Limited
|Coded access optical sensor|
A method for performing high dynamic range optical image detection of a scene. The method comprises imaging incident light from a scene onto an object plane of an optical array device, the oad operating in time modulation mode; determining the locations of those pixels in the object plane of a first light level; detecting the optical irradiance values of those pixels of the first light level to produce a first detected image; detecting the optical irradiance values of those pixels of a second light level to produce a second detected image; and generating a high dynamic range optical irradiance map of the scene by combining the first detected image and the second detected image into a single image..
University College Cork - National University Of Ireland, Cork
In an image sensor, pixels each including a photoelectric converter pd converting an amount of incident light into a charge, charge storage including at least one of capacitors storing the charges, and an amplifier tr6 amplifying a voltage according to the charges stored in the capacitor and outputs the voltage are disposed. The image sensor includes: comparing units 3 to 5 comparing the output voltage from the amplifier tr6 to a predetermined threshold voltage; a memory unit 1 storing comparison results from the comparing units 3 to 5; switchers tr9 to tr14 deciding the capacitor connected to the photoelectric converter pd and the amplifier tr6 among the capacitors included in the charge storage based on the comparison results stored in the memory unit 1; and a signal line transmitting a signal Φsc for controlling whether the switchers tr9 to tr14 decide the capacitor to the switchers tr9 to tr14..
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
|Digital photographing apparatus and digital photographing method|
A digital photographing apparatus includes: an image sensor including a first pixel group and a second pixel group each pixel group including a plurality of pixels for generating an imaging signal by photoelectrically converting incident light, the image sensor being configured to acquire the imaging signal two or more times in the second pixel group and to acquire the imaging signal once in the first pixel group; and a processor configured to acquire an image in which a motion of a subject appears based on the imaging signal acquired by the image sensor, and to generate a motion-corrected image based on the imaging signal acquired in the second pixel group.. .
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Photovoltaic element with optically functional conversion layer for improving the conversion of the incident light and producing said photovoltaic element
The invention relates to a photovoltaic element including an optically functional surface layer for improving a conversion of the incident light. The functioning of the layer involves absorbing incident sunlight having a low wavelength and emitting it again as light radiation having a higher wavelength, so that this light spectrum becomes usable for solar cells.
Photoelectric conversion element
A photoelectric conversion element includes a superlattice semiconductor layer including barrier sub-layers and quantum sub-layers (quantum dot sub-layers) alternately stacked and also includes a wavelength conversion layer containing a wavelength conversion material converting the wavelength of incident light. The wavelength conversion layer converts incident light into light with a wavelength corresponding to an optical transition from a quantum level of the conduction band of the superlattice semiconductor layer to a continuum level of the conduction band..
The University Of Tokyo
Optical device with photon flipping
An optical device with photon flipping for converting an incident light flux into a practically monochromatic light beam, the device including a cladding area including a photon crystal microstructure, the photon crystal microstructure having an allowed spectral band and a spectral band gap; a flipping area including a flipping fluorescent dye which has a spectral band for absorbing fluorescence, which covers at least part of the allowed spectral band, and a spectral band for emitting fluorescence, which covers at least part of the spectral band gap of the photon crystal microstructure; a central area arranged to enable propagation of a monochromatic light beam having a wavelength in the spectral band gap, the central area being surrounded by the photon crystal microstructure; the core area having a thickness which is less than or equal to five times the wavelength of the maximum fluorescence emission of the flipping fluorescent dye.. .
Commissariat À L'Énergie Atomique Et Aux Énergies Al Ternatives
Optical module and reflective display apparatus
The present disclosure provides an optical module and a reflective display apparatus that relate to the technical field of display and may improve the display effects in a dark environment to enhance the contrast of the display apparatus. The optical module includes a light guide plate, a light emitting unit arranged at a lateral side of the light guide plate, and an optical film and a scattering film stacked in sequence on the light guide plate, wherein the optical film is configured to reduce an incident angle of incident light and the scattering film is configured to scatter the incident light, the optical film being arranged between the light guide plate and the scattering film..
Boe Technology Group Co., Ltd.
Photodetector output correction method used for spectroscopic analyzer
The present invention is adapted to make light beams emitted from a light source enter a photodetector both when interposing an optical element having known characteristics and when not interposing the optical element, and acquire a first output value and a second output value that are the output values of the photodetector with respect to each of light beams that respectively have predetermined multiple wavenumbers and are included in the incident light beams, and obtain an arithmetic expression for calculating intensity of incident light beams from an output value of the photodetector, using parameters that are a ratio between the first output value and the second output value at each of the predetermined wavenumbers and the wavenumber transmission or reflection characteristic of the optical element.. .
Image sensor and driving method thereof, and image capturing apparatus
An image sensor comprising: a plurality of unit pixels, arranged in matrix, each having a plurality of photoelectric conversion portions for accumulating charge corresponding to a quantity of incident light; color filters, arranged for the plurality of unit pixels, respectively, that mainly pass light of wavelengths corresponding to different colors; first control signal lines arranged between every predetermined number of rows and connected to the unit pixels, included in the predetermined number of rows, corresponding to the color filters of a first color; and second control signal lines arranged between the every predetermined number of rows and connected to the unit pixels, included in the same predetermined number of rows that include the unit pixels corresponding to the color filters of the first color, corresponding to the color filters of a second color.. .
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
Solid-state image pickup device and driving the same
A solid-state image pickup device includes: a photoelectric conversion element including a charge accumulation region, the photoelectric conversion element performing photoelectric conversion on incident light and accumulating, in the charge accumulation region, electric charge obtained through the photoelectric conversion; a charge-voltage conversion element accumulating the electric charge obtained through the photoelectric conversion; and a charge accumulation element adjacent to the photoelectric conversion element, part or all of the charge accumulation element overlapping the charge accumulation region, and the charge accumulation element adding capacitance to capacitance of the charge-voltage conversion element.. .
Reflecting plate, backlight unit, and display device
Disclosed herein are a reflecting plate, a backlight unit, and a display device using the backlight unit, and the display device includes one or more light sources; a reflecting plate to which light radiated from the one or more light sources is incident and having a reflecting surface reflecting the incident light; one or more selective light absorbing parts disposed on the reflecting surface and configured to selectively absorb a portion of the incident light; and a quantum dot sheet into which at least one of light emitted without being absorbed by the selective light absorbing part and light radiated from the light source is incident.. .
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Optical system comprising a spatial light modulator
A perturbing optical element (30) for introducing optical aberrations in the incident light beam (12) and/or the modulated light beam (17) so as to spread the unmodulated “zero order” part of the modulated light beam in the replay volume (18), the perturbing optical element (30) generating distortions in the image to be projected, wherein the control signal comprises an image signal component carrying data representative of the image to be projected and a correction signal component representative of a correction pattern for correcting the distortions generated by the perturbing optical element (30) in the image to be projected.. .
Optical instrument for locating at least one characteristic point of an ophthalmic lens
An instrument has a light-emitting and light-receiving assembly including an image capture unit and image processing unit; a backscatterer and an opening provided therein; a support for receiving an ophthalmic lens between the assembly and backscatterer, the assembly, support and backscatterer placed so that an incident light beam traverses the lens, strikes the backscatterer, returns and re-traverses the lens to arrive at the capture unit; the light-receiving assembly, the support, backscatterer and opening configured so that the assembly receives light from the beam; and the opening and a drive device for cyclically driving and making the backscatterer perform an identical movement in each cycle, configured so that a fixed zone opposite the backscatterer includes at least one part of which, over the course of a cycle, every point is at times perpendicular to the opening and at times perpendicular to a solid portion part of the backscatterer.. .
Essilor International (compagnie GÉnÉrale D'optique)
Insulating sheer fabric
Fabrics which allow for light transmission and provide thermal insulation are described. A fabric is formed from at least one yarn to form a continuous web of fabric.
Smart Textile Products, Llc
Image sensor and electronic device
The present disclosure relates to an image sensor and an electronic device which make it possible to continuously output frames which can be used as an image without disturbing a frame rate. An image sensor of an aspect of the present disclosure includes a pixel unit, a memory, a control unit, and a detection unit.
Spectral light splitting module and photovoltaic system
A light splitting optical module that converts incident light into electrical energy, the module including a solid optical element comprising an input end for receiving light, a first side, and a second side spaced from the first side, a first solar cell adjacent to the first side of the solid optical element, and a second solar cell adjacent to the second side of the solid optical element. The first solar cell is positioned to absorb a first subset of incident light and reflect a first remainder of the incident light to the second solar cell through the solid optical element, wherein the first solar cell has a lower band gap than the second cell..
Californiainstitute Of Technology
Optical device, manufacturing optical device, and display device, electronic device and illuminating device including optical device
An optical device including first and second transparent substrates disposed so that the principal surfaces thereof face each other; conductive light shielding patterns disposed on the principal surface side of the first transparent substrate; a transparent conductive film disposed on the principal surface of the second transparent substrate; a plurality of light transmissive regions disposed on the first transparent substrate; and an electrophoretic element disposed in gaps between each adjacent light transmissive regions is configured such that the dispersion state of electrophoretic particles 61 is changed by externally applied electric fields, thereby changing the range of outgoing directions of transmitted light. Thus, it is possible to relieve a decrease in the amount of charging of an electrophoretic element caused by the ingress of incident light and to ensure operation stability..
Nlt Technologies, Ltd.
Optical modulation employing high contrast grating lens
A high contrast grating optical modulation includes an optical modulator at a front surface of a substrate to modulate received light. The high contrast grating optical modulation further includes a high contrast grating (hcg) lens adjacent to a back surface of the substrate opposite to the front surface to focus incident light onto the optical modulator.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development Lp
Spatially variable filter systems and methods
An improved compact spectrometer system comprising an improved spatially variable filter is disclosed herein. A spatially variable filter may be configured to have a plurality of different transmission profiles at different locations of the filter, to spectrally separate light incident on the filter.
Low profile, highly efficient vehicular led modules and assemblies
A vehicular led assembly is provided that includes a plurality of vehicular led modules, each comprising: a lens with a canted input surface and an exit surface; a bezel surrounding the lens; and an led light source positioned to direct incident light through the input surface. The input surface comprises a plurality of near-field lens elements for shaping the incident light into a collimated light pattern emanating from the exit surface.
Ford Global Technologies, Llc
Optical sensor with narrow angular response
The present invention relates to an optical sensor that is formed in an integrated circuit based on cmos technology and that comprises: one or more photocells including one or more photodetector active areas and an optical stack formed on the photodetector active area(s); and light shielding means, that are formed in or on the optical stack, and are configured, for each photocell, to define an angular range around a given incident direction with respect to said photocell, block incident light with incidence angle outside the defined angular range, and allow incident light with incidence angle within the defined angular range to propagate through the optical stack down to a respective photodetector active area; whereby the light shielding means limit angular response of the optical sensor.. .
Photoelectric conversion device and image generation device
A photoelectric conversion device includes a photoelectric conversion unit which includes a phototransistor having a collector region, an emitter region, and a base region to generate an output current according to an intensity of incident light to the phototransistor, and a base potential setting unit which is configured to set up a base potential of the phototransistor so that the output current from the photoelectric conversion unit is equal to a predetermined current value.. .
Ricoh Company, Ltd.
Solid-state imaging device, manufacturing method thereof, and electronic apparatus
A solid-state imaging device includes a plurality of photoelectric conversion portions each provided to correspond to each of a plurality of pixels in a semiconductor substrate and receiving incident light through a light sensing surface, and a pixel separation portion that is embedded into a trench provided on a side portion of the photoelectric conversion portion and electrically separates the plurality of pixels in a side of an incident surface of the semiconductor substrate into which the incident light enters. The pixel separation portion is formed by an insulation material which absorbs the incident light entering the light sensing surface..
Image pickup device, image pickup apparatus, and production apparatus and method
[solving means] an image pickup device according to the present disclosure includes: a photoelectric conversion device that photoelectrically converts incident light that has entered from outside; an organic film that is formed by being laminated on a light-incident surface side of the photoelectric conversion device; and an inorganic film that is formed by being laminated on a light-incident surface and side surfaces of the organic film and seals the organic film, the side surface of the organic film being tilted by an angle at which a thickness of the inorganic film that is formed by being laminated on the side surfaces becomes a predetermined thickness. The present disclosure is applicable to an image pickup device, an image pickup apparatus, a production apparatus for image pickup device, and the like..
Hologram recording device and hologram recording method
The present disclosure discloses a hologram recording device and a hologram recording method. The hologram recording device comprises an object imaging unit comprising a cavity for accommodating an object whose interior wall is a reflective surface, and a light modulating unit configured to produce incident light and reference light interfering with the incident light and to direct the incident light to the object imaging unit.
Boe Technology Group Co., Ltd.
Unbalanced hub design
A colour wheel, comprises a hub portion, configured to act as a rotor for coupling to a motor and having a disk-shaped surface; an optically active radial portion, attached to or integrated with the hub portion and configured to optically process incident light; and a balancing adaptation to the disk-shaped surface of the hub portion, comprising one or more of: (a) a recess in the disk-shaped surface extending to an edge of the disk-shaped surface; (b) an annular groove in the disk-shaped surface having a non-uniform width and/or being non-concentric with the disk-shaped surface; (c) an annular groove in the disk-shaped surface, at least a portion of which is filled by a balancing mass part; and (d) a groove and/or a matrix of recesses in the disk-shaped surface arranged to define a portion of an annulus in shape.. .
Anisotropic optical film
In an anisotropic optical film including two or more anisotropic light diffusion layers where the linear transmittance varies depending on the incident angle of incident light, each of the anisotropic light diffusion layers is provided with a matrix region and a plurality of pillar regions that differ in refractive index from the matrix region, the film includes, as the anisotropic light diffusion layers, at least two types of anisotropic light diffusion layers (a) and (b) that differ in linear transmittance, the maximum linear transmittance of the anisotropic light diffusion (a) is 40% or more and less than 95%, and the minimum linear transmittance thereof is less than 20%, and the maximum linear transmittance of the anisotropic light diffusion layer (h) is 20% or more and less than 40%, and the minimum linear transmittance thereof is less than 20%.. .
Imaging device provided with light source that emits pulsed light and image sensor
An imaging device according to an aspect of the present disclosure is provided with: a light source that, in operation, emits pulsed light including components of different wavelengths; an encoding element that has regions each having different light transmittance, through which incident light from a target onto which the pulsed light has been irradiated is transmitted; a spectroscopic element that, in operation, causes the incident light transmitted through the regions to be dispersed into light rays in accordance with the wavelengths; and an image sensor that, in operation, receives the light rays dispersed by the spectroscopic element.. .
Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
Control and display system with synchronous direct view video array and incident key lighting
Various embodiments relate to an apparatus for controlling a lighting device. A light control circuit can use a controlled lighting sequence control and drive viewed sections of a lighting device to display chroma key color or emit infrared light, while driving other unviewed portions of the lighting device to display ambient and incident lighting.
Revolution Display, Llc
Imaging device, imaging apparatus, and electronic apparatus
There is provided an imaging device that includes a pixel generation unit that generates an image signal formed from a plurality of pixel signals according to incident light, and a frame memory that stores the image signal of a plurality of frames.. .
Image sensor with high dynamic range and method
In one form, a pixel for use in image sensing comprises a photodetector, a sink device, and a readout circuit. The photodetector is formed in a semiconductor substrate and has a charge collection region for receiving photocharge representative of incident light.
Semiconductor Components Industries, Llc
Backside illumination image sensor and image-capturing device
A backside illumination image sensor that includes a semiconductor substrate with a plurality of photoelectric conversion elements and a read circuit formed on a front surface side of the semiconductor substrate, and captures an image by outputting, via the read circuit, electrical signals generated as incident light having reached a back surface side of the semiconductor substrate is received at the photoelectric conversion elements includes: a light shielding film formed on a side where incident light enters the photoelectric conversion elements, with an opening formed therein in correspondence to each photoelectric conversion element; and an on-chip lens formed at a position set apart from the light shielding film by a predetermined distance in correspondence to each photoelectric conversion element. The light shielding film and an exit pupil plane of the image forming optical system achieve a conjugate relation to each other with regard to the on-chip lens..
Light guide plate
A light guide plate includes a diffusing surface that diffuses incident light having a concave cylindrical surface shape with curvature in a first direction, and an exit surface having a convex cylindrical surface shape with curvature in the first direction. The light guide plate is constituted such that a pattern provided behind the diffusing surface is visible from the exit surface side.
Non-invasive wine taint detector
A system includes a computing device including a memory configured to store instructions. The computing device also includes a processor to execute the instructions to perform operations including initiating transmission of incident light from one or more light sources to a sealed bottle containing liquid.
A beam detector including a light source, a receiver, and a target, acting in cooperation to detect particles in a monitored area. The target reflects incident light, resulting in reflected light being returned to receiver.
Xtralis Technologies Ltd
Lighting apparatus and automobile including the same
A lighting apparatus includes: a base that is open toward a front and includes a low beam light-distribution pattern forming component; a lens body disposed forward of the base; a first light-emitting device; and a second light-emitting device. incident light is refracted in a lower portion of the lens body, and the incident light and exiting light travel in substantially same direction in an upper portion of the lens body.
Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
Bending light device for vehicles
A bending light device for a vehicle diffracting light emitted from a light source and deflecting the light at a desired angle and in a desired direction may include an ultrasonic light deflector configured to diffract light incident thereon in a selected direction by emitting an ultrasonic beam to the incident light, a light reflection unit configured to reflect light emitted from a light source to the ultrasonic light deflector, a projection lens configured to project light incident thereon after passing through the ultrasonic light deflector to radiate the light outside, and a converging lens arranged between the ultrasonic light deflector and the projection lens and configured to converge the light having passed through the ultrasonic light deflector on the projection lens.. .
Hyundai Motor Company
Methods, systems, and devices for imaging microscopic tumors
An imager for in vivo viewing of diseased tissue by way of fluorescently conjugated molecules. A generally planar imaging surface with a microlens array.
Regents Of The University Of California
Endoscope having a distal electrical feed-through, and assembling an endoscope
An endoscope having a distal electrical feed-through, the endoscope including: an endoscope shaft having a distal objective unit comprising an electromagnetic actuator and a distal optical assembly that can be shifted in a longitudinal direction by actuation of the actuator, the endoscope shaft having a proximal unit having a proximal optical assembly arranged after the distal optical assembly in the direction of incident light, the objective unit is rotatable relative to the proximal unit about a longitudinal axis during assembly of the endoscope and is fixed rotationally relative to the proximal unit after assembly; and a cable for supplying current to the actuator, the cable being fed from the proximal unit to the objective unit, the cable having an excess length at a transition from the proximal unit to the objective unit, such excess length being at least half of the outer circumference of the objective unit.. .
Olympus Winter & Ibe Gmbh
Image sensors, image acquisition devices and electronic devices including the same
An image sensor can include a pixel array including a plurality of unit pixels and a row driver arranged in a matrix form that includes a plurality of rows and a plurality of columns. Respective ones of the unit pixels may convent an incident light to an electric signal and may store the electric signal.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Imaging device and photographing apparatus
An imaging device is provided. The imaging device includes: a plurality of phase difference detecting pixels.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Image capturing apparatus, controlling the same, and storage medium
An image capturing apparatus includes an image capturing unit for capturing an object image; an adjustment unit for adjusting the exposure of the image capturing unit; a detection unit for, in the case where the image capturing unit is saturated with respect to light that is input, detecting a signal level corresponding to the highest level of incident light in the image capturing unit after the adjustment unit reduces the exposure of the image capturing unit so as to reduce saturation; and a control unit for, in the case where the exposure of the image capturing unit is reduced by the adjustment unit, controlling the adjustment unit such that, among a plurality of methods for changing the exposure, a method having a faster response speed in response to an instruction to change the exposure is given priority and used.. .
Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
Organic light emitting device and display apparatus
An organic light emitting device and a display apparatus are disclosed. The organic light emitting device includes an array substrate and a package substrate (2); on a side of the package substrate (2) facing the array substrate, there is provided a protrusion (7) formed of a first transparent material, a surface of the protrusion (7) is also covered with a transparent layer (8) formed of a second transparent material, and the refractive index of the second transparent material is larger than the refractive index of the first transparent material.
Boe Technology Group Co., Ltd.
High-efficiency photoelectric element and manufacturing same
The present invention relates to a photoelectric element and a method for manufacturing the same, and the photoelectric element according to the present invention includes: a semiconductor substrate; and transparent conductor pattern portions formed on a surface of the semiconductor substrate to be connected to each other with a specific cycle such that incident light is concentrated in a specific area of the semiconductor substrate.. .
Incheon University Industry Academic Cooperation Foundation
Virtual high dynamic range large-small pixel image sensor
An image sensor includes photodiodes arranged in semiconductor material. Each of the photodiodes is identically sized and is fabricated in the semiconductor material with identical semiconductor processing conditions.
Omnivision Technologies, Inc.
Elevated pocket pixels, imaging devices and systems including the same and forming the same
An elevated photosensor for image sensors and methods of forming the photosensor. The photosensor may have light sensors having indentation features including, but not limited to, v-shaped, u-shaped, or other shaped features.
Micron Technology, Inc.
Supramolecular networks with electron transfer in two dimensions
Organic charge-transfer (ct) co-crystals in a crossed stack system are disclosed. The co-crystals exhibit bidirectional charge transfer interactions where one donor molecule shares electrons with two different acceptors, one acceptor face-to-face and the other edge-to-face.