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Fuel Cell patents



      
           
This page is updated frequently with new Fuel Cell-related patent applications. Subscribe to the Fuel Cell RSS feed to automatically get the update: related Fuel RSS feeds. RSS updates for this page: Fuel Cell RSS RSS


Fuel cell system

Nissan Motor

Fuel cell system

Heat-source cooling device

Toyota Jidosha

Heat-source cooling device

Heat-source cooling device

Composite oxide powder for solid oxide fuel cell and its production method

Date/App# patent app List of recent Fuel Cell-related patents
02/26/15
20150056537
 Fuel cell patent thumbnailnew patent Fuel cell
A fuel cell includes a main body which is formed by stacking a cathode layer, an electrolyte layer, and an anode layer, in which the surface of one of the cathode and anode layers serves as a first main surface, and the surface of the other layer serves as a second main surface; a first current collector in contact with the first main surface; and a second current collector in contact with the second main surface. As viewed in a thickness direction, at least a portion of the boundary of a second region of the second current collector corresponding to the second main surface is located within a first region of the first current collector corresponding to the first main surface, and the remaining portion is located within the first region or on the boundary of the first region..
Ngk Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
02/26/15
20150056536
 Non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts using metal organic framework materials and  preparation patent thumbnailnew patent Non-platinum group metal electrocatalysts using metal organic framework materials and preparation
A method of preparing a nitrogen containing electrode catalyst by converting a high surface area metal-organic framework (mof) material free of platinum group metals that includes a transition metal, an organic ligand, and an organic solvent via a high temperature thermal treatment to form catalytic active sites in the mof. At least a portion of the contained organic solvent may be replaced with a nitrogen containing organic solvent or an organometallic compound or a transition metal salt to enhance catalytic performance.
Uchicago Argonne, Llc
02/26/15
20150056535
 Multi-layer coating patent thumbnailnew patent Multi-layer coating
Wherein p(o2)in, p(o2)ex, dm, and do are as defined herein. The coating may be used in high temperature devices, particularly for coating interconnect materials in solid oxide electrolytic devices, including solid oxide fuel cells (sofcs) and solid oxide electrolysis cells (soecs)..
02/26/15
20150056534
 Membrane electrode assemblies and associated fuel cells patent thumbnailnew patent Membrane electrode assemblies and associated fuel cells
The description relates to fuel cells and fuel cell systems. One example includes at least one multi cell membrane electrode assembly (mcmea).
Emergent Power Inc.
02/26/15
20150056533
 Fuel cell system patent thumbnailnew patent Fuel cell system
A fuel cell system includes a target pressure setting unit configured to periodically and repeatedly set a target upper limit pressure and a target lower limit pressure as a target pressure of anode gas. An upper limit pressure setting unit is configured to set the smaller one of an upper limit value based on durability performance and an upper limit value based on output performance as an upper limit pressure of the anode gas.
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/26/15
20150056532
 Fuel cell apparatus and  operation patent thumbnailnew patent Fuel cell apparatus and operation
A fuel cell apparatus (10) and method (50) of operating a fuel cell are provided. The fuel cell apparatus (10) includes a fuel cell assembly (12) having a first outlet (26) and a first vessel (34) coupled to the first outlet (26) and forming a first dead end.
Temasek Polytechnic
02/26/15
20150056531
 Fuel cell system patent thumbnailnew patent Fuel cell system
A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack configured to generate power according to a load, a fuel tank configured to store fuel gas, a pressure regulating valve configured to regulate a pressure of the fuel gas supplied from the fuel tank to the fuel cell stack, a purge valve configured to purge the fuel gas discharged from the fuel cell stack and a controller for controlling the system. The controller includes a pulsating unit configured to cause a fuel gas pressure of the fuel cell stack to pulsate, and a pressure increasing rate setting unit configured to set a pressure increasing rate of the pulsation of the fuel gas pressure according to an operating state..
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/26/15
20150056530
 Heat-source cooling device patent thumbnailnew patent Heat-source cooling device
A fuel cell is used for generating driving energy for a vehicle. The reserve-tank inlet valve is located between a suction side of the coolant pump and a position in the coolant circuit at which a pressure of the coolant controlled by the reserve-tank inlet valve is an intermediate value between a discharge pressure of the coolant pump and a suction pressure of the coolant pump during an operation of the coolant pump.
Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
02/26/15
20150056529
 Forklift fuel cell supply system patent thumbnailnew patent Forklift fuel cell supply system
This invention provides an improved forklift fuel cell supply system consists of enclosure 90 and the fuel cell system 100, dcdc converting unit 2, contactor 3, energy storage device 4, controller 7 provided in the said enclosure 90, which also consists of the power supply output end 5 provided outside the said enclosure 90 and the operation control unit 6, electric isolation board 901, hydrogen storage system, filling valve 95 provided in the said enclosure 90, in which the said contactor 3 is a normal open type high-current contactor, the said dcdc converting unit 2 includes the dcdc converter 21 and high-power diode 22 connecting with it. This invention is compact in structure and facilitates such work as system installation, overhaul and maintenance, etc.
Infintium Fuel Cell Systems (shanghai) Co., Ltd.
02/26/15
20150056528
 Reforming chamber with multiple electrodes to generate hydrogen patent thumbnailnew patent Reforming chamber with multiple electrodes to generate hydrogen
Embodiments described herein generally relate to a reforming chamber housing a hydrocarbon-water mixture and receiving a control voltage signal to cause molecular breakdown of the mixture and create a feed of hydrogen and carbon and dioxide that can be supplied to fuel cells. The reforming chamber includes multiple electrodes positioned across from a ground plane inside a cylindrical support structure.
19th Space Energy, Llc
02/26/15
20150056527
new patent

Hydrogen purging device and fuel cell system


A hydrogen purging device for a fuel cell system includes a humidifier that humidifies dry air supplied from an air blower, using moist air discharged from a cathode of a stack and supplies the humidified air to the cathode. A water trap and a hydrogen recirculation blower are sequentially connected to an outlet of an anode, wherein a hydrogen outlet of the water trap and an inlet of the humidifier are connected by a cathode-hydrogen purging line for purging hydrogen to the cathode so that the hydrogen discharged from the anode of the fuel stack is purged to the cathode during idling or during normal driving..
Hyundai Motor Company
02/26/15
20150056526
new patent

Fuel cell module and fuel cell system


A fuel cell module of an aspect of the present invention includes: a fuel cell; a dehydrogenation reaction part that performs a dehydrogenation reaction of a hydride of an aromatic compound; a hydrogen separator that separates the hydrogen produced in the dehydrogenation reaction part from a dehydrogenated product of the hydride; a hydrogen supplier that supplies the hydrogen separated in the hydrogen separator to the fuel cell; and a single housing that houses the fuel cell, the dehydrogenation reaction part, the hydrogen separator, and the hydrogen supplier. The dehydrogenation reaction part is heated by at least one of the heat generated in the fuel cell and that generated by combustion of offgas from the fuel cell..
Jx Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
02/26/15
20150056477
new patent

Fuel cell mixed power supply energy management method


This invention provides a kind of mixed power supply energy management method for fuel battery, including the following steps: initialization; control the output current of dcdc converting unit according to the measured energy storage device voltage and the actual current outputted by the dcdc converting unit, respond to the energy need resulting from load condition change and at the same time ensure the energy storage device to be in a best charge state; send a current setting instruction to the dcdc converting unit. This invention does not adopt the soc calculation mode any more, the system no longer relies on the accuracy, reliability of current sensor; and this invention is strongly compatible, highly reliable, strongly practical and stable in output voltage, with the same system being applicable to more vehicles of different models (forklift) and parameter correction being unnecessary.
Infintium Fuel Cell Systems (shanghai) Co., Ltd.
02/26/15
20150053898
new patent

Composite oxide powder for solid oxide fuel cell and its production method


A composite oxide powder containing lanthanum, strontium and/or calcium, manganese and oxygen, wherein the coefficient of variation (α) of lanthanum is at most 6.0% and the coefficient of variation (β) of manganese is at most 13.0%, as calculated from the peak area ratio of the lα ray of lanthanum and the kα ray of manganese measured by an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer attached to a scanning electron microscope.. .
02/26/15
20150053491
new patent

Thermal management system for fuel cell, fuel cell system and vehicle equipped with fuel cell system


The invention provides a thermal management system for a fuel cell, a fuel cell system and a vehicle equipped with the fuel cell system. The thermal management system for a fuel cell comprises: a cooling system (100) for recovering the waste heat produced by the fuel cell system, a heat supply system (15) connected with the cooling system (100) to supply heat using the waste heat recovered by the cooling system (100).
Dongfang Electric Corporation
02/19/15
20150051818

Engine system and control engine system


An engine system is constituted of a battery, a fuel cell, a turbocharger, an engine, a controller configured to (i) stop the engine automatically upon fulfillment of a predetermined stop condition and starts the engine automatically upon fulfillment of a predetermined restoration condition. In the engine system, the controller is configured to stop the fuel cell from charging the battery or limit a charge amount of the battery to a value equal to or smaller than a discharge amount when the fuel cell is driven during operation of the engine and an soc is equal to or larger than a first limit value w1.
Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
02/19/15
20150051064

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) for enhancing the activity and stability of platinum-based electrocatalysts


The electrocatalytic compositions of this invention comprise a platinum-based electrocatalyst and polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp), whereby the pvp improves certain properties of the platinum-based electrocatalyst. The electrolytic compositions described herein have applications in fuel cell technologies.
Georgetown University
02/19/15
20150050583

Highly sinter-stable metal nanoparticles supported on mesoporous graphitic particles and their use


The present invention refers to highly sinter-stable metal nanoparticles supported on mesoporous graphitic spheres, the so obtained metal-loaded mesoporous graphitic particles, processes for their preparation and the use thereof as catalysts, in particular for high temperature reactions in reducing atmosphere and cathode side oxygen reduction reaction (orr) in pem fuel cells.. .
Studiengesellschaft Kohle Mbh
02/19/15
20150050580

Electrochemical device comprising a proton-conducting ceramic electrolyte


The invention relates to the use of a ceramic of formula ba2(1-x)m2xin2(1-y)m′2yo4+δ(oh)δ′ where m represents at least one metal cation with an oxidation number ii or iii or a combination thereof, m′ represents at least one metal cation with an oxidation number iii, iv, v or vi or a combination thereof, 0≦x≦1, 0≦y≦1, δ≦2 and 0<δ′≦2, as solid proton-conducting electrolyte in an electrochemical device, in particular a fuel cell, an electrolytic cell, a membrane separating hydrogen from a gas mixture, or also a hydrogen detector, at an operating temperature of said electrochemical device preferably comprised between 200° c. And 600° c..
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique - Cnrs -
02/19/15
20150050579

Medium and high-temperature carbon-air cell


The present invention relates to a medium and high-temperature carbon-air cell, which include a solid oxide fuel cell, a co2 separation membrane and a carbon fuel. The solid oxide fuel cell is a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with one end closed, the carbon fuel is placed inside the tubular solid oxide fuel cell, and the co2 separation membrane is sealed at the open end of the solid oxide fuel cell.
Nanjing University Of Technology
02/19/15
20150050577

Fuel cell stack and seal plate used for the same


A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of cell modules each formed by stacking a plurality of fuel cells, each of the plurality of fuel cells having a membrane electrode assembly having an insulating member at an outer periphery portion thereof and paired separators sandwiching the membrane electrode assembly, and by attaching the insulating members of adjacent fuel cells together, and a seal plate interposed between the stacked cell modules. The seal plate includes a plurality of manifold holes from which two power-generation gases flow separately through the plurality of fuel cells, and a first seal member provided along a peripheral portion of each of the plurality of manifold holes to seal a corresponding one of the two power-generation gases flowing through the manifold hole..
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/19/15
20150050576

Fuel cell system and controlling concentration of fuel


A method of controlling a concentration of a fuel to be supplied to a stack of a fuel cell system, the method including determining a reference concentration of the fuel to be supplied to the stack when the stack is in a normal mode, monitoring temperature of the stack, and controlling the concentration of the fuel to be supplied to the stack, based on a result of the monitoring the temperature of the stack.. .
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
02/19/15
20150050575

Fuel cell fluid distribution


A bipolar fuel cell plate (300) for use in a fuel cell comprising a plurality of flow field channels (704) and a coolant distribution structure (708) formed as part of the fluid flow field plate. The coolant distribution structure is configured to direct coolant droplets (701) into the flow field channels.
Intelligent Energy Limited
02/19/15
20150050573

Fuel cell module with heat exchanger


A heat exchanger of a fuel cell module includes a plurality of heat exchange pipes connected to an oxygen-containing gas supply chamber at one end, and connected to an oxygen-containing gas discharge chamber at the other end. An end of an oxygen-containing gas inlet pipe for guiding the oxygen-containing gas to the oxygen-containing gas supply chamber is provided in the oxygen-containing gas supply chamber.
Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
02/19/15
20150050567

Biofuel cell


The biofuel cell has a positive electrode, a negative electrode, an external circuit electrically connecting the positive electrode and the negative electrode, a positive electrode region where the positive electrode is disposed, a negative electrode region where the negative electrode is disposed, and a proton permeable membrane disposed between the positive electrode region and the negative electrode region, and the negative electrode region houses a biocatalyst together with the crushed material. The negative electrode region is separated by a mesh into an electrode region and a crushed material region, the negative electrode is housed in the electrode region, and the crushed material is housed in the crushed material region..
Hiroshima University
02/19/15
20150050528

Fuel cell system


A fuel cell system includes a control valve configured to control a pressure of the anode gas supplied to the fuel cell, the power controller electrically connected to the fuel cell and configured to control an output of the fuel cell based on a power generation required amount for the fuel cell, a pulsation operation control unit configured to increase a pressure of the anode gas downstream of the control valve in accordance with the power generation required amount for the fuel cell and to increase and decrease the pressure of the anode gas periodically, and an output limiting unit configured to limit an output of the fuel cell set by the power controller when the power generation required amount for the fuel cell decreases.. .
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/19/15
20150050524

Apparatus and measuring internal ohmic resistance of fuel cell system


An apparatus and a method for measuring the internal ohmic resistance of a fuel cell system, in which the resistance can be easily measured through a current interruption method even while the fuel cell system is operated. An interrupter and an external energy consumption device are connected in parallel to each other between a fuel cell and a main energy consumption device such that current to the external energy consumption device is applied and interrupted by switching the interrupter on/off even while the fuel cell system is maintained in operation as is, thereby making it possible to easily measure the internal ohmic resistance of the fuel cell..
Hyundai Motor Company
02/19/15
20150047754

Cr-mo alloy steel composition having excellent hydrogen brittleness resistance and heat treatment of the same


Alloy steel compositions having improved resistance to hydrogen brittleness and methods of heat treating same are provided. The alloy steel compositions find applications in hydrogen storage containers, piping systems for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, or reinforced boards for sound absorption/insulation on a multiple layers.
Hyundai Motor Company
02/12/15
20150044599

Fuel cell system


A fuel cell system includes a fuel cell stack, a cathode supply flow passage which is connected to the fuel cell stack and through which cathode gas flows, a cathode off-gas flow passage which is connected to the fuel cell stack and discharges cathode off-gas, a bypass flow passage which is branched off from the cathode supply flow passage and through which a part of the cathode gas flows while bypassing the fuel cell stack, a bypass valve configured to regulate a bypass flow rate in the bypass flow passage and include an atmosphere communication hole, and an anode off-gas flow passage which is connected to the fuel cell stack and discharges anode off-gas. The anode off-gas flow passage joins the bypass flow passage at a side downstream of the cathode off-gas flow passage or the bypass valve, and the bypass valve is formed with a clearance configured to leak a predetermined quantity of gas even in a fully closed state..
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/12/15
20150044598

Liquid drum type fuel cell-metal recovery apparatus


Disclosed herein is a liquid drum type fuel cell-metal recovery apparatus, which can produce power through electrochemical oxidation of coal by continuously receiving coal/metal oxide mixed particles.. .
Gwangju Institute Of Science And Technology
02/12/15
20150044597

Solid electrolyte, manufacturing solid electrolyte, solid electrolyte laminate, manufacturing solid electrolyte laminate, and fuel cell


Provided is a solid electrolyte made of yttrium-doped barium zirconate having hydrogen ion conductivity, a doped amount of yttrium being 15 mol % to 20 mol %, and a rate of increase in lattice constant at 100° c. To 1000° c.
Kyoto University
02/12/15
20150044596

Solid electrolyte laminate, manufacturing solid electrolyte laminate, and fuel cell


Provided is a solid electrolyte laminate comprising a solid electrolyte layer having proton conductivity and a cathode electrode layer laminated on one side of the solid electrolyte layer and made of lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide (lsc). Also provided is a method for manufacturing the solid electrolyte.
Kyoto University
02/12/15
20150044595

Production process of electrode catalyst for fuel cells, electrode catalyst for fuel cells and uses thereof


An object of the present invention is to suppress flooding phenomenon in an electrode catalyst for fuel cells containing a metal atom, a carbon atom, a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom. A production process of an electrode catalyst for fuel cells is provided which includes a fluorination step of bringing a catalyst body into contact with fluorine, the catalyst body having an atom of at least one metal element selected from the group consisting of zinc, titanium, niobium, zirconium, aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, strontium, yttrium, tin, tungsten, cerium, samarium and lanthanum, a carbon atom, a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom..
Showa Denko K.k.
02/12/15
20150044594

Processes for producing catalyst-layer-supporting substrate, catalyst-layer-supporting substrate, membrane electrode assembly, and fuel cell


A catalyst-layer-supporting substrate comprising a substrate supporting a catalyst layer; wherein the catalyst layer comprises two or more porous catalyst metal particle layers that are superposed alternately with (i) two or more intersticed layers comprising at least one element selected from the group consisting of mn, fe, co, ni, zn, sn, al, and cu; or (ii) two or more fibrous carbon layers having interstices among fibers of the fibrous carbon. A method for forming a catalyst-layer-supporting structure that comprises porous catalyst metal particle by removing a pore-forming metal from a mixture layer containing a pore-forming metal and a catalyst metal..
Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
02/12/15
20150044593

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell


Wherein the cathode interlayer 14 contains carbon fibers having an average fiber diameter of from 30 to 300 nm and an ion exchange resin.. .
02/12/15
20150044592

Fuel cell stack


In a fuel cell stack, voltage detecting terminals are disposed on a second separator and a third separator of a power generation unit, whereas a voltage detecting terminal is not disposed on a first separator of the power generation unit. Among terminal plates of the fuel cell stack, another voltage detecting terminal is disposed only on the terminal plate that is in contact with the first separator..
Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
02/12/15
20150044591

Fuel cell pack and fuel cell pack assembly


A fuel cell pack is disclosed. The fuel cell pack has n membrane electrode assemblies, n−1 connected conductive planes, an independent first electrode conductive layer, and an independent second electrode conductive layer, wherein n is an integer and 2≦n≦3000.
Gunitech Corp.
02/12/15
20150044590

Method for operating a fuel cell stack for a fuel cell system, and fuel cell system


A method for operating a fuel cell stack (10) for a fuel cell system, in particular of a vehicle, in which by reversing the flow direction (14, 16) of a coolant during a cooling operation, the coolant in the fuel cell stack (10) is initially conveyed in a first direction (14). The coolant is subsequently conveyed in a second direction (16) which is at least substantially opposite to the first direction (14).
Daimler Ag
02/12/15
20150044589

Fuel cell module


A fuel cell module includes a first area where an exhaust gas combustor and a start-up combustor are provided, an annular second area around the first area where a heat exchanger is provided, an annular third area around the second area where a reformer is provided, an annular fourth area around the third area where an evaporator is provided, and a first partition member provided between the first area and the second area. The first partition member has a combustion gas hole for allowing the combustion gas to flow from the first area to the second area.
Honda Motor Co., Ltd.
02/12/15
20150044588

Plasma-catalyzed, thermally-integrated reformer for fuel cell systems


A reformer is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a channel to convey a preheated plurality of reactants containing both a feedstock fuel and an oxidant. A plasma generator is provided to apply an electrical potential to the reactants sufficient to ionize one or more of the reactants.
Ceramatec, Inc.
02/12/15
20150044587

Solid oxide fuel cell system


To provide a solid oxide fuel cell system capable of avoiding the reduction of air electrodes. The present invention is a fuel cell system having: a fuel cell module, a fuel supply apparatus, a water supply apparatus, an air supply apparatus, a reformer, and a control section for controlling the extraction of power from a fuel cell module, whereby the controller includes a shutdown stop circuit for executing a shutdown stop when the fuel cell stack is above the oxidation suppression temperature, and after execution of a shutdown stop, during a period when pressure on the fuel electrode side is sufficiently higher than pressure on the air electrode side, and no reverse flow of air to the fuel electrode side is occurring, a temperature drop operation is executed whereby high temperature air remaining on the air electrode side is discharged..
Toto Ltd.
02/12/15
20150044586

Fuel cell system


When the rotational speed of the water pump is abnormal with respect to the target rotational speed region during the power generation operation of the fuel cell, the control unit repeats a short time increase and a short time decrease of the s/c value in a reforming reaction, by alternately repeating an increase in a short time (Δt increase, within 10 seconds) and a decrease in a short time (Δt decrease, within 10 seconds) of the rotational speed of the water pump with respect to an abnormal rotational speed, while continuing the power generation operation of the fuel cell, thereby averaging the s/c value.. .
02/12/15
20150044585

Fuel cell system and operating the same


A fuel cell system includes: a fuel cell to generate electric power; a casing accommodating at least the fuel cell, the casing including an air inlet and an exhaust outlet; a supply passage connected to the air inlet, to introduce external air into the casing; an exhaust passage connected to the exhaust outlet, to exchange heat with the supply passage and discharge at least air inside the casing; an air supply device to introduce the external air into the casing; a temperature detector to detect a temperature; and a controller configured to control at least the air supply device. If the temperature detected by the temperature detector after the controller has caused the air supply device to operate is lower than or equal to a first predetermined temperature, the controller reduces an amount of air supplied by the air supply device and causes the air supply device to continue operating..
Panasonic Corporation
02/12/15
20150044584

Fuel cell system


A fuel cell system, provided with: a fuel-generating material which generates a fuel by a chemical reaction and which can be regenerated by a reverse reaction of the aforementioned chemical reaction; a first fuel cell in which gas is circulated with respect to the fuel-generating material; and a second fuel cell for generating power using a fuel gas introduced from an external gas supply source. The amount of heat generated in the second fuel cell performing a power generation operation is transmitted to the first fuel cell preforming an electrolysis operation..
Konica Minolta, Inc.
02/12/15
20150044583

Hydrogen purifier, hydrogen generation apparatus, and fuel cell system


A hydrogen purifier includes: a co remover configured to reduce carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-containing gas through an oxidation reaction, the hydrogen-containing gas containing ammonia and carbon monoxide; and an ammonia remover provided upstream from the co remover, the ammonia remover being configured to cause a reaction between ammonia in the hydrogen-containing gas and oxygen by using a catalyst to decompose the ammonia.. .
Panasonic Corporation
02/12/15
20150044582

Fuel cell system


A fuel cell system supplies a fuel cell with an anode gas and a cathode gas, thereby generating electric power. The fuel cell system includes: a control valve for controlling a pressure of the anode gas in the fuel cell; a buffer part for accumulating an anode off-gas discharged from the fuel cell; an off-gas discharge passage for connecting the fuel cell and the buffer part with each other; a purge passage connected to the off-gas discharge passage; a purge valve; a purge unit configured to open the purge valve to discharge the gas in the buffer part to an outside of the fuel cell system; and a pressure control unit configured to decrease the pressure of the anode gas in the fuel cell from a first predetermined pressure to a second predetermined pressure, thereby controlling the gas in the buffer part to flow backward to the fuel cell side..
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
02/12/15
20150044579

Electrochemical devices based on multiple junction ionic conductive membranes


A fuel cell (100) includes a cation exchange membrane (110), a first anion exchange membrane (120) and a second anion exchange membrane (130). The cation exchange membrane (110) has a first side and an opposite second side.
Georgia Tech Research Corporation


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