Date/App# 
List of recent Exponentrelated patents 
08/18/16 20160239267  Modular multiplication using lookup tables Various embodiments relate to a method, system, and nontransitory machinereadable medium encoded with instructions for execution by a processor for performing modular exponentiation, the nontransitory machinereadable medium including: instructions for iteratively calculating a modular exponentiation, bd mod n, including: instructions for squaring a working value, c; and instructions for conditionally multiplying the working value, c, by a base value, b, dependent on a bit of an exponent, d, including: instructions for unconditionally multiplying the working value, c, by a lookup table entry associated with the base value.. . Nxp B.v.

08/11/16 20160232210  Content search mechanism using finite automata An improved content search mechanism uses a graph that includes intelligent nodes avoids the overhead of post processing and improves the overall performance of a content processing application. An intelligent node is similar to a node in a dfa graph but includes a command. Cavium, Inc.

08/11/16 20160231245  Methods and systems for instrument validation In one exemplary embodiment, a method for validating an instrument is provided. The method includes receiving amplification data from a validation plate to generate a plurality of amplification curves. Life Technologies Corporation

08/04/16 20160227247  Coding escape pixels for palette coding In one example, a device includes a memory configured to store video data and a video decoder configured to decode an exponential golomb codeword representative of at least a portion of a value for an escape pixel of a palettemode coded block of video data, the video decoder is configured to decode the exponential golomb codeword using exponential golomb with parameter 3 decoding, and decode the block using the value for the escape pixel.. . Qualcomm Incorporated

08/04/16 20160226905  Risk scoring for threat assessment Threat risks to an enterprise are detected and assessed by assembling singular threats identified using both direct and behavioral threat indicators into composite threats to create complex use cases across multiple domains, and to amplify risks along kill chains of known attacks for early detection. Composite threat risk scores are computed from risk scores of singular threats to exponentially increase with the number of events observed along the kill chain. Securonix, Inc.

08/04/16 20160226695  Method and circuit for fast fourier transform A method for fft/ifft computation, comprising: identifying whether grouping data is needed based on data bitwidth distribution in a set of data, wherein the set of data includes data in a stage of a fft/ifft computation; assigning different data representations including effective bit and group index for data identified in different groups if grouping is needed, wherein data in a group have same exponent, and data in different groups have different exponents; and outputting a signal indicating the exponent; for each of a plurality of short sequence fft/ifft computation—decomposing data used in present short sequence fft/ifft computation into at least a first multibit part and a second multibit part; respectively calculating fft/ifft computation results for the first multibit part and the second multibit part; adding the fft/ifft computation results for the first and the second multibit part; scanning a plurality of short sequence fft/ifft computation added results.. . Montage Technology (shanghai) Co., Ltd.

08/04/16 20160224318  Method and converting from integer to floating point representation Apparatus and methods for conversion from signed integer to a floating point representation are provided. Two's complementation and lead zero count operations are performed in parallel.


08/04/16 20160220140  Detection of rpeak point in an electrocardiogram signal Detection of rpeak signal in an electrocardiogram signal is provided. An electrocardiogram signal representing heart activity of an individual is received.

07/28/16 20160215317  Selfreplication of nucleic acid origami tiles The present invention provides a method for selfreplication of multimers of nucleic acid origami tiles by exponentially amplifying the multimer from initial seeds of monomeric units of nucleic acid origami tiles and also provides for the selective exponential amplification of a designated multimer, such as with specific properties or characteristics, over one or more competing multimers in the presence of a mixture of monomers for each of the possible multimers. The selection of the designated multimer based on an environmental change allows the designated multimer to outgrow all competing multimers.. New York University

07/28/16 20160214044  Filter media having an optimized gradient Filter media having a gradient in a property and methods associated with such media are provided. In some embodiments, a filter media may have a gradient in mean pore size. Hollingsworth & Vose Company

07/21/16 20160211862  Method and converting from floating point to integer representation Apparatus and methods for conversion from floating point to signed integer representation are provided. Two's complementation and determination of a shift control signal indicating the number of bit positions for shifting the two's complemented mantissa to produce the signed integer are performed in parallel.

07/21/16 20160210406  Methods and systems for identifying the quantitation cycle for a pcr amplification reaction Methods and systems for identifying a quantitation cycle (cq) for a pcr reaction that includes fitting a line having a plurality of line segments to data points associated with a pcr amplification reaction. The data points include a cycle value associated with a pcr cycle and a product value associated with a pcr product. Thermo Fisher Scientific Oy

07/21/16 20160210120  Computerreadable recording medium, encoding apparatus, and encoding method An encoding apparatus detects a bit repeating portion in a mantissa part bit string. The mantissa part bit string is a part of a bit string of a floating point number and corresponds to a mantissa of the floating point number. Fujitsu Limited

07/21/16 20160205937  Cleaning solution and manufacturing method therefor The present invention has an object to provide a highly stable cleaning solution that generates a high concentration of hypochlorous acid during cleaning, and has sterilizing and washing out activity on bacteria and viruses. As means for achieving this object, a cleaning solution has been developed which is an aqueous solution containing hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions produced using a diaphragmfree electrolysis process. Epios Co., Ltd.

07/14/16 20160202952  Shift significand of decimal floating point data A decimal floating point finite number in a decimal floating point format is composed from the number in a different format. A decimal floating point format includes fields to hold information relating to the sign, exponent and significand of the decimal floating point finite number. International Business Machines Corporation

07/14/16 20160199033  Method for quantifying the characteristics of an object treated with a contrast agent The method comprises: a) receiving a plurality of imaging signals of the object over a period of time; b) measuring the signal intensity in each of the plurality of imaging signals corresponding to a point on the object; and c) curve fitting the measured signal intensity of the point on the object to a biexponential function comprising a first and a second exponential term, the first exponential term representing the decrease in concentration of the contrast agent which is free over time and the second exponential term representing a decrease in concentration of the contrast agent which is retained on the object over time.. .

07/14/16 20160198968  Monitoring the effects of sleep deprivation using neuronal avalanches The present invention is directed to a method of continuously monitoring neuronal avalanches in a subject comprising (a) determining a deviation in avalanche exponent (α) or branching parameter (σ) from a predetermined value at rest, wherein the predetermined value of α is a slope of a size distribution of the synchronized neuronal activity and the predetermined value is −3/2 and the predetermined value of σ is a ratio of successively propagated synchronized neuronal activity and the predetermined value is 1; and (b) repeating step (a) one or more times to continuously monitor neuronal avalanches in a subject. The invention also features methods of determining or monitoring the degree of sleep deprivation in a subject, methods of identifying subjects that are susceptible to a sleep disorder and methods of diagnosing a sleep disorder in a subject.. The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secreatary, Dept., Of Health & Human Services

07/07/16 20160198365  Distributed load management on network devices This disclosure relates to a system and method for dynamically managing load on network devices in a distributed manner. As the proliferation of data rich content and increasingly more capable mobile devices has continued, the amount of data communicated over mobile operator's networks has exponentially increased. Cisco Technology, Inc.

07/07/16 20160196690  Tessellation apparatus and method A tessellation method and apparatus are provided, where the tessellation method includes receiving a first value that is calculated in performing tessellation, the first value being a first floatingpoint real number represented by a first exponent and a first mantissa; determining a second precision of the first mantissa on the basis of a value of the first exponent and a first precision; and adjusting the first mantissa to have the second precision.. . Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

07/07/16 20160196606  Trading anomaly kill switch A system that can detect when abnormal trading activity is occurring and take action to halt the detected abnormal trading activity without human intervention using a computerimplemented anomaly detection and action stage that performs an exponential weighted averaging of trade order flow, on a per symbol basis within a sliding volume based window and a volume based exponential weighted averaging, on a per symbol basis, on trade update messages received during the sliding volume based window and checks for an inflection in covariance between them. A related method is also described.. Morgan Stanley

07/07/16 20160196236  Method for estimating and predicting parameters of exponentiated weibull model Discussed herein are a computing device and an associated method for computing bayesian estimation for shape parameters and reliability function of the exponentiated weibull distribution based on dual generalized order statistics. Metropolishastings algorithm is employed for computing bayes estimates. Umm Alqura University

07/07/16 20160196235  Method and determining a smoothed data point within a stream of data points A method and an apparatus for determining at least one smoothed data point (tk, sk) within a stream of data points {ti, si} with 1≦i≦z, k<z is disclosed. Herein, the stream of data points {ti, si} is consecutively acquired in a manner that a data point (ti, si) is acquired after an acquisition of a preceding data point (ti1, si1), wherein each data point (ti, si) comprises a valid value or an invalid value or a missing value for the signal si at a time ti. Eyesense Ag

07/07/16 20160195639  System and correlating pointtopoint sky clearness for use in photovoltaic fleet output estimation with the aid of a digital computer Statistically representing pointtopoint photovoltaic power estimation and areatopoint conversion of satellite pixel irradiance data are described. Accuracy on correlated overhead sky clearness is bounded by evaluating a mean and standard deviation between recorded irradiance measures and the forecast irradiance measures. Clean Power Research, L.l.c.

06/30/16 20160188293  Digital signal processor A processor configured to: receive, at a floatingpointinputterminal, an inputblock of data comprising a plurality of floatingpoint numbers each floatingpoint number comprising a mantissa and an exponent; determine an inputscalefactor based on a previousinputblockexponentvalue associated with a previousinputblock of data; and convert the inputblock of data into a fixedpointblock of data in accordance with the inputscalefactor, wherein the fixedpointblock of data comprises a plurality of fixedpointvalues that can represent the plurality of floatingpoint numbers within a particular range.. .

06/23/16 20160183043  System and distributed and dynamic location identification of mobile devices The present invention provides a system and method for distributed and dynamic location identification of mobile devices, wherein such method continuously estimates the path loss exponent for a specific environment from a priori known distance, hence estimating the distance to another transmitter. In the system and method of the present invention, any blind node can estimate its own location if there exists at least three nodes connected via wireless links in a distributed ad hoc mode within a radio communication range of each other and if each one of said nodes is either equipped with location identification mechanism or its location is fixed and known priori..

06/23/16 20160182236  Efficient smooth encodings for modular exponentiation Various embodiments relate to a method of encoding data and a related device and nontransitory machine readable storage medium, including: determining a factor set, s, to be used for encoding the value, h, wherein the factor set includes a plurality of subsets that are associated with respective digit positions in the value, h; selecting a plurality of factors from the factor set, s; and computing a product of the plurality of factors to produce an encoded value. Various other embodiments relate to a method of encoding data and a related device and nontransitory machine readable storage medium, including: determining a factor set, s, and weight, w, to be used for encoding the value, h; selecting a set, t, of w factors from the factor set, s, to represent the value, h; and computing a product of the set, t, to produce an encoded value..

06/23/16 20160182235  General encoding functions for modular exponentiation encryption schemes Various embodiments relate to a method of encoding data and related device and nontransitory machine readable storage medium, the method including: determining a set of digits, x, representative of a value to be encoded; determining a set of factor values, s, to be used in generating an encoded value, wherein the set of factor values, s, is a set of input value factors for a modular exponentiated digital signature process; for a given digit, x, of the set of digits, x, determining at least one factor value, s, of the set of factor values, s, corresponding to the given digit, x; and including the at least one factor value, s, in an encoded value.. .

06/23/16 20160182230  Secure tokenbased signature schemes using lookup tables Various embodiments relate to a method of generating tokens for use in modular exponentiation and a related device and nontransitory machine readable storage medium, including: generating a public token, τ, based on an identifier associated with another device; generating a private token, l, as a modular exponentiation of the public token, τ, using a private exponent, d, and modulus, n, from a cryptographic key; and communicating the private token, l, to the other device.. .

06/23/16 20160179473  Modular exponentiation using look up tables Various embodiments relate to a method of encoding data and a related device and nontransitory machine readable storage medium, including: determining a plurality of factors of a value, b, to be exponentiated; retrieving, from a lookup table, a plurality of lookup table entries associated with the plurality of factors; calculating a product of the plurality of lookup table entries; and calculating a residue of the product using a cryptographic key modulus, n, to produce an exponentiated value, s.. .

06/23/16 20160178675  Loglinear power detector A power detector constituted of: a transconductance element arranged to output a rectified detection current, the magnitude thereof arranged to increase exponentially responsive to a linear increase in the amplitude of an input signal; and at least one pn junction based device, a function of the rectified detection current arranged to flow there through. The output of the power detector is a function of the voltage across the at least one pn junction based device..

06/16/16 20160173907  Lm mode with uniform bitwidth multipliers A video codec including a processor configured to generate a predicted chroma sample for a chroma block based on reconstructed luma samples located in neighboring blocks of a corresponding reconstructed luma block and adjacent to the corresponding reconstructed luma block, and reconstructed chroma samples located in neighboring blocks of the chroma block and adjacent to the chroma block. Generating the predicted chroma sample includes computing a plurality of multipliers. Futurewei Technologies, Inc.

06/16/16 20160173320  Method and system for an adaptive softwaredefined networking controller (asdnc) A method and system for the design, implementation, and operation of an adaptive softwaredefined networking controller (asdnc) is described. Traditional sdn controllers support stateless control of forwarding/datapath elements (logical or physical) in order to provide quasiseamless control/management of information flows. Zte (usa) Inc.

06/16/16 20160168990  Determining the plus fraction of a gas chromatogram Methods and devices for determining a plus fraction of a plus fraction of a gas chromatogram are provided. A gas chromatogram may obtained, such as from a downhole gas chromatograph module of a fluid analysis tool. Schlumberger Technology Corporation

06/16/16 20160167540  Current sensor for a vehicle A vehicle includes a battery configured to operate at a current, during a drive cycle, in a nominal current range for a time greater than in a maximum current range. A controller is programmed to output a voltage based on the current according to a gain calibrated to be greater in the nominal current range than in the maximum current range to increase resolution in the nominal current range. Ford Global Technologies, Llc

06/16/16 20160166223  Multisource ct systems and prereconstruction inversion methods A computed tomography scanner has multiple radiation sources or source arrays, in specific geometric dimensions for optimized imaging speed. A ct system with maximum fanangle Γ and k simultaneously active xray sources distributed over an angle of π2Γ radians, the sources partially overlapping on a detector array, measures summed projection data corresponding to k or less lineintegrals at each detector element.

06/09/16 20160158434  Power injector with decay constant functionality A power injector is disclosed having power injector control logic, which in turn includes a decay constant crossreference, for instance in the form of a data structure. Flow rate decay constant information may be stored by the decay constant crossreference. Liebelflarsheim Company Llc

06/09/16 20160157828  Beamforming method, measurement and imaging instruments, and communication instruments Beamforming method that allows a high speed and high accuracy beamforming with no approximate interpolations. This beamforming method includes step (a) that generates reception signals by receiving waves arrival from a measurement object; and step (b) that performs a beamforming with respect to the reception signals generated by step (a); and step (b) including without performing wavenumber matching including approximate interpolation processings with respect to the reception signals, and the reception signals are fourier's transformed in the axial direction and the calculated fourier's transform is multiplied to a complex exponential function expressed using a wavenumber of the wave and a carrier frequency to perform wavenumber matching in the lateral direction and further, the product is fourier's transformed in the lateral direction and the calculated result is multiplied to a complex exponential function, from which an effect of the lateral wavenumber matching is removed, to perform wavenumber matching in the axial direction, by which an image signal is generated..

06/02/16 20160155941  Charge ordered vertical transistors A vertical charge ordered transistor is disclosed. A thin charge ordered layer is employed as a tunnel barrier between two electrodes. Drexel University

05/19/16 20160139882  Accuracyconserving floatingpoint value aggregation A method for enhancing an accuracy of a sum of a plurality of floatingpoint numbers. The method receives a floatingpoint number and generates a plurality of provisional numbers with a value of zero. International Business Machines Corporation

05/19/16 20160139881  Accuracyconserving floatingpoint value aggregation A method for enhancing an accuracy of a sum of a plurality of floatingpoint numbers. The method receives a floatingpoint number and generates a plurality of provisional numbers with a value of zero. International Business Machines Corporation

05/05/16 20160127919  Efficient beam scanning for highfrequency wireless networks Systems and methods relating to nonadaptive beam scanning in a wireless network are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of operation of a transmit node to perform nonadaptive beam scanning for transmit beam patterns of the transmit node that partition a service coverage area of the transmit node into transmit partition cells is provided. Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (publ)

05/05/16 20160127387  Method for combining multiple signal values in the dendritic cell algorithm Artificial immune systems (ais) including the dendritic cell algorithm (dca) are an emerging method to detect malware in computer systems. A dca module may receive an output or signal from multiple indicators concerning the state of at least a portion of the system. The Boeing Company

05/05/16 20160124717  Method and system of improved galois multiplication Embodiments of the invention include an apparatus for performing galois multiplication using an enhanced galois table. Galois multiplication may include converting a first and second multiplicand to exponential forms using a galois table, adding the exponential forms of the first and second multiplicands, and converting the added exponential forms of the first and second multiplicands to a decimal equivalent binary form using the galois table to decimal equivalent binary result of the galois multiplication.. Echelon Corporation

05/05/16 20160124713  Fast, energyefficient exponential computations in simd architectures In one embodiment, a computerimplemented method includes receiving as input a value of a variable x and receiving as input a degree n of a polynomial function being used to evaluate an exponential function ex. A first expression a*(x−ln(2)*kn(xf))+b is evaluated, by one or more computer processors in a single instruction multiple data (simd) architecture, as an integer and is read as a double. International Business Machines Corporation

05/05/16 20160124712  Exponent monitoring A processing apparatus 200 includes floating point arithmetic circuitry 214, 216 coupled to monitoring circuitry 226. The monitoring circuitry stores exponent limit data indicating at least one of a maximum exponent value and a minimum exponent value processed when performing the floating point arithmetic operations. Arm Limited

05/05/16 20160124709  Fast, energyefficient exponential computations in simd architectures In one embodiment, a computerimplemented method includes receiving as input a value of a variable x and receiving as input a degree n of a polynomial function being used to evaluate an exponential function ex. A first expression a*(x−ln(2)*kn(xf))+b is evaluated, by one or more computer processors in a single instruction multiple data (simd) architecture, as an integer and is read as a double. International Business Machines Corporation

05/05/16 20160124419  Method and compensating thermal displacement of machine tool Disclosed are a method and an apparatus for compensating thermal displacement of a machine tool, the apparatus including: a compensation quantity calculating unit configured to calculate a compensation quantity by using temperature data and a predetermined compensation parameter; a smoothing filter configured to exponentially smooth the calculated compensation quantity; a scaling unit configured to scale the exponentially smoothed compensation quantity; a timedispersion compensating unit configured to calculate a final compensation quantity by timedispersion compensation for the scaled compensation quantity according to a timedispersion compensating period; and a control unit configured to compensate each axis of equipment according to the final compensation quantity, and adjusts the timedispersion compensating period of the timedispersion compensating unit according to an error absolute value representing a difference between an input value and an output value of the timedispersion compensating unit.. . Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd.

04/28/16 20160119007  Method and apparatus A signal processing method for estimating a frequency domain representation of signal from a series of samples distorted by an instrument function, the method comprising obtaining the series of samples; obtaining a set of coefficients that fit a set of basis functions to a complex exponential function wherein the set of basis functions comprises a plurality of basis functions each defined by a shifted version of the instrument function in a signal domain; estimating the frequency domain representation of the signal based on the series of samples and the coefficients. This is wherein the estimate of the instrument function is based on a characterisation of the instrument function in the frequency domain at frequencies associated with the complex exponential function.. The Chinese University Of Hong Kong

04/28/16 20160118526  Multijunction solar cell with dilute nitride subcell having graded doping A latticematched solar cell having a dilute nitridebased subcell has exponential doping to thereby control currentcarrying capacity of the solar cell. Specifically a solar cell with at least one dilute nitride subcell that has a variably doped base or emitter is disclosed. Solar Junction Corporation

04/28/16 20160118037  Apparatus for outputting protecting sound in quieting vehicle An apparatus and method for outputting a protecting sound in a quieting vehicle is provided. The apparatus includes a storage unit that is configured to store a mapping table in which protecting sounds having frequency bands that are exponentially increased for each vehicle speed are mapped. Hyundai Motor Company

04/28/16 20160117354  Method and system for dynamically partitioning very large database indices on writeonce tables Methods and systems for partitioning and dynamically merging a database index are described. A database index includes a single firstlevel index partition stored in a data cache. Sap Se

04/21/16 20160112225  Measuring waveforms with the digital infinite exponential transform A method is performed of selecting a signal of interest from a compound signal. The method includes generating a matrix and initializing a first row of the matrix to zero.

04/21/16 20160110171  Compiler optimization for complex exponential calculations Technologies for optimizing complex exponential calculations include a computing device with optimizing compiler. The compiler parses source code, optimizes the parsed representation of the source code, and generates output code.

04/21/16 20160109543  Method and magnetic resonance determining a minimized echo time In a method for determining a minimum possible echo time for a radiofrequency coil used in a magnetic resonance scanner, magnetic resonance signals are acquired with the radiofrequency coil in a magnetic resonance measurement of a free induction decay at fixed time intervals, the minimum possible echo time being determined by evaluating the time series of magnetic resonance signals as the instant from which an exponential signal decay was measured.. .

04/21/16 20160106331  Fractal index analysis of human electroencephalogram signals A system and method for multifractaldetrended fluctuation analysis (mfdfa) on digitized human eeg signals is presented. A list of hurst exponents, or hurst exponent spectrum (“h” values) are generated, and multifractal singularity spectrum indices (“d(h)” values) produce a graph that approximates an inverted parabola.

04/14/16 20160101293  Implantable cardio defibrillator (icd), subcutaneous implantable cardio defibrillator (sicd), and waveform energy control systems Cardiac defibrillation or cardioversion waveform energy control systems employ transvenous icds or subcutaneous sicds for treating cardiac arrhythmias. The systems comprise differentially driven amplifier circuit operational modes to control the delivery of defibrillation or cardioversion electrical shocks, wherein the shock waveforms are constant current, constant voltage, or constant energy.

04/07/16 20160100177  Nonuniform exponentialgolomb codes for palette mode coding In an example, a method of decoding video data using palette mode may include receiving a palette mode encoded block of video data of a picture. The method may include receiving encoded palette mode information for the palette mode encoded block of video data. Qualcomm Incorporated

04/07/16 20160098249  Decimal and binary floating point arithmetic calculations Logic is provided for performing decimal and binary floating point arithmetic calculations on first and second operands. The method includes: receiving the first and second operands in packed format; unpacking the first and second operands; swapping the first operand to a fourth operand and the second operand to a third operand, if an exponent of the first operand is less than an exponent of the second operand, otherwise storing the first operand to the third operand and the second operand to the fourth operand; aligning the third operand and the fourth operands based on the exponent difference of the third and fourth operand and a number of leading zeroes of the third operand; performing an add/subtract operation on the aligned third and fourth operands with normalizing and rounding between the operands; and packing the result obtained from the add/subtract.. International Business Machines Corporation

03/31/16 20160091417  Calibration curve creation , target component calibration , and electronic apparatus A calibration curve creation method includes a step of obtaining an independent component matrix including independent components of each sample, and this step includes a step of obtaining the independent component matrix by performing a first preprocess including normalization of the observation data, a second preprocess including whitening, and independent component analysis in this order. In the first preprocess, normalization is performed after a process based on project on null space (pns) is performed. Seiko Epson Corporation

03/24/16 20160087785  Time synchronization and controlled asynchronization of remote trigger signals A mechanism is disclosed for transmitting pulses onto respective cables so that the pulses arrive at the remote ends of the respective cables in synchronized (or controllably asynchronized) fashion. First, the roundtrip time of flight of each cable is measured using speedy delivery pulses, i.e., pulses whose leading edges have exponential shape. Board Of Regents Of The University Of Texas System

03/24/16 20160087647  Data compression using entropy encoding Data values can be entropy encoded, as part of a data compression process, according to a predetermined variablelength entropy coding scheme (e.g. Based on exponential golomb coding) such that they have ≧1 prefix bits and ≧0 suffix bits. Imagination Technologies Limited

03/24/16 20160085507  Method and controlling range of representable numbers Provided are a method of controlling a range of representable numbers includes receiving a floating point value represented by an exponent and a mantissa, each represented by a predetermined numbers of bits, determining a bit configuration of the exponent and the mantissa of the floating point value based on a value of a most significant bit of the exponent of the floating point value, and determining a constant required for calculation of the floating point value according to the determined bit configuration of the exponent, and an apparatus for providing such a method.. . Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

03/24/16 20160084861  Calibration for multicomponent assays A method of analyzing a biological sample using an analyzer and an assay. The method comprises providing the assay for producing the signal. Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc.
