|| List of recent Colloid-related patents
| Nonviral targeted nanoparticle system for gene transfer and drug delivery|
The embodiments herein provide a nanoparticle system for targeted gene delivery or a drug delivery and a method of synthesising the same. The nanoparticle composition for targeted gene transfer and drug delivery comprises a protein, a chitosan and a lipid.
| Stabilizer composition of microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose, method for making, and uses|
The subject matter of this invention is a composition and method of making a water-dispersible, stabilizing colloidal microcrystalline cellulose:xarboxymethylcellulose composition. The method of making the composition does not require a salt solution as an anti-slip agent..
| Confectionery products and their manufacture|
An edible jelly product, being a body formed from a mass of jelly-forming material by a progressive advancement of said mass to a forming station and progressive formation of the body at the forming station, wherein said mass comprises a sugar and a structure-forming agent selected from a hydrocolloid and modified starch, wherein the solids content of the jelly product, when formed into the body, is at least 60 wt %. A method is described of making such an edible jelly product which is transparent and contains air bubbles which are visible by eye; and which may be brought together with other such jelly products to form consolidated bodies such as twists, which can be easily peeled apart by consumers..
| Hinged pad with soft edge|
The present invention relates to a laminated pad that is used to apply a fluid, liquid or a colloidal substance in a controlled manner onto a surface, wherein the pad comprises a top and bottom layer between which top and bottom layer at least one layer is arranged, a utility layer being arranged on an outside of the bottom layer, the top layer, at least one layer, bottom layer and utility layer being connected to form a closed storage chamber for a substance that is to be contained in the pad, where at least a part of the top and bottom layer outside and around the closed storage chamber is cut off in order to create a soft edge around the periphery of the pad, where a hinged layer, the at least one layer and the utility layer are connected around their outer edges to form a laminated pad.. .
| Light-emitting device containing flattened anisotropic colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals and processes for manufacturing such devices|
A device that emits light in response to an electrical or optical excitation, such as leds, displays, e-readers, device includes at least one anisotropic flat colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal whose smallest dimension, namely the thickness, is smaller than the other two by a factor of at least 1.5, the emitted light having an intensity and a polarization that vary according to the angle formed by the light emitting direction and the normal to the largest surface of the flat nanocrystal. The device allows to realize a light-emitting device exhibiting simultaneously a high emission spectral finesse and allows proper control of the wavelength, the directivity and/or polarization of the emitted light, and thus increases the brightness and color gamut of displays composed of such a device.
|Adhesive interface bandage|
Said adherent interface dressing comprises a non-adherent cohesive gel formed from a hydrophobic elastomeric matrix consisting of a styrene-(ethylene/butylene)-styrene or styrene-(ethylene/propylene)-styrene triblock elastomer optionally associated with a styrene-(ethylene/butylene) or styrene-(ethylene/propylene) diblock copolymer; said elastomer being highly plasticized by means of a mineral oil, and containing dispersed therein a small quantity of hydrophilic particles of a hydrocolloid; and a flexible open-mesh fabric, said fabric comprising threads coated with the non-adherent cohesive gel in such a way as to leave the meshes substantially unsealed, characterized in that the fabric is a heat-set knit with weft yarns, said yarns being continuous multifilament yarns with non-elastic filaments, whereof the extensibility in the transverse direction measured in accordance with standard en 13726-4 is between 0.01 and 0.5 n/cm.. .
|Co-attrited stabilizer composition having superior gel strength|
The present invention is directed to a co-attrited stabilizer composition comprising: a) microcrystalline cellulose in an amount of from 20%-90% by weight of the composition; b) a hydrocolloid in an amount of from 5%-50% by weight of the composition, wherein the hydrocolloid is selected from at least one member of the group consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose having a degree of substitution of at least 0.95, pectin, alginate, carrageenan, xanthan gum, agar gum, wellan gum, or gellan gum; and c) a starch in an amount of from 5%-50% by weight of the composition, wherein the stabilizer composition has a gel strength (g′) of at least 25 pa when measured after 24 hours in a 2.6% solids water dispersion at 20° c. The composition is useful as a stabilizer, particularly in food and beverage products..
|Scratch and abrasion resistant uv blocking glass coating|
A coating composition and method of making a scratch resistant uv blocking glass coating is described. The composition can include an aqueous colloidal silica.
|Hydrocolloids coprocessed with cellulosic fibers when being sheared into highly refined cellulose|
An improved method refines cellulose to produce a highly refined cellulosic material in combination with a hydrocolloid. The method comprises soaking raw material from primarily parenchymal cell wall structures in an aqueous solution which need not contain an agent to modify the fiber (e.g., a mild alkalizing or alkaline agent and/or solution) using reduced temperatures and pressures, and refining the material with a plate refiner so that a waste water stream is reduced in volume.
A method of treating herpes labialis includes assembling a patch having hydrocolloid particles added to a layer of adhesive to so configure the patch to have a limited absorption of moisture into the patch combined with a permeability of moisture through and out of the patch. The method additionally includes providing the patch to the user and having the user apply the patch to the user's face in treating the herpes labialis, and configuring the patch to be less visible when applied to the user's face than a cream is visible when applied to the user's face..
|Touch panel assembly structure|
A touch panel assembly structure includes a touch sensor substrate, a cover lens, a sealing frame, and a plurality of transparent elastic elements. The cover lens is facing the touch sensor substrate.
|Lighting system using dispersed fluorescence|
A system for generating light using a blue or ultraviolet light emitter as excitation source for dispersed fluorescent material is disclosed. A light transmissive dispersant, which may colloidally suspend or chemically dissolve a fluorescent material, acts to distribute the fluorescent material over a spatial region.
|Superparamagnetic colloids with enhanced charge stability for high quality magnetically tunable photonic structures|
A method of stabilizing electromagnetically charged particles, which includes coating electromagnetically charged particles with a protective layer; and etching the protective layer to produce a porous protective layer on the electromagnetically charged.. .
|Protective hydrocolloid for active ingredients|
(modified) sorghum protein is used as novel protective hydrocolloid for active ingredients, especially fat-soluble active ingredients and/or colorants. Included are compositions comprising (modified) sorghum protein and at least one active ingredient and to their manufacture, as well as to the (modified) sorghum protein itself and its manufacture.
|Metal colloidal solution and method for producing same|
The present invention is a metal colloid solution comprising: colloidal particles consisting of metal particles consisting of one or two or more metal(s) and a protective agent bonding to the metal particles; and a solvent as a dispersion medium of the colloidal particles, wherein: a chloride ion concentration per a metal concentration of 1 mass % is 25 ppm or less; and a nitrate ion concentration per a metal concentration of 1 mass % is 7500 ppm or less. In the present invention, adsorption performance can be improved with adjustment of the amount of the protective agent of the colloidal particles.
|Edible cup and method of making the same|
The present invention relates to an edible container made of liquid, sugar, and one or more hydrocolloids. The edible container may hold hot or cold liquids for extended periods of time..
|Dermocosmetic compositions based on a synergistic combination of colloidal silver and deoxyribonucleic acid|
The present invention relates to dermocosmetic compositions containing, as active ingredients, a synergistic combination of colloidal silver and deoxyribonucleic acid, characterized in that the colloidal silver is more particularly an aqueous solution of electro colloidal silver.. .
|Luminous elements with an electroluminescent arrangement and method for producing a luminous element|
The invention relates to a luminous element having a luminous layer which comprises electroluminescent particles and a water-dispersible or water-soluble protective colloid.. .
|Blue light-emitting diodes based on zinc selenide quantum dots|
The present invention relates to colloidal quantum dots, to a process for producing such colloidal quantum dots, to the use thereof and to optoelectronic components comprising colloidal quantum dots.. .
|Hybrid porous structured material, method of preparing hybrid porous structured material, membrane including hybrid porous structured material, and water treatment device including membrane including hybrid porous structured material|
A hybrid porous structured material may include a porous region and a non-porous region. The porous region may include an imaginary stacked structure, wherein a plurality of imaginary spherical bodies/cavities are stacked so as to contact each other in three-dimensional directions.
|Selective nickel based hydrogenation catalyst and the preparation thereof|
A selective nickel-based hydrogenation catalyst and the preparation thereof, characterized in that: provided that the catalyst is weighed 100%, it comprises nickel oxide 14-20% as active component, lanthanum oxide and/or cerium oxide 2-8%, and vib element oxide 1-8% as aids, 2-8% silica, 1-8% alkaline earth metal oxides, and alumina as the balance. The catalyst specific surface area is 60-150 m2/g, and the pore volume is 0.4-0.6 ml/g.
|Method and apparatus for a nanopipette biosensor|
A nanopipette biosensor capable of detecting a small concentration of target molecules within a sample solution using optical detection methods. The biosensor includes a nanopipette that connects a nanocolloid reservoir containing a nanocolloid solution and a sample reservoir containing a sample solution, where the nanopipette is tapered at the end connected to the sample reservoir.
|Binder composition for an electrode and methods for producing the same|
The presently disclosed and/or claimed inventive process(es), procedure(s), method(s), product(s), result(s), and/or concept(s) (collectively hereinafter referred to as the “presently disclosed and/or claimed inventive concept(s)”) relates generally to the composition of a binder for use in battery electrodes and methods of preparing such. More particularly, but not by way of limitation, the presently disclosed and/or claimed inventive concept(s) relates to a binder composition containing an ionizable water soluble polymer and a redispersible powder containing a latex, a protective colloid, and an anticaking agent for use in the production and manufacture of electrodes of a lithium ion battery.
|Carpet coating compositions of improved stability formed from vinyl acetate/ethylene copolymer dispersions|
Disclosed are aqueous carpet-coating compositions suitable for use as binders or adhesives in carpet products. Such compositions, prior to being applied to carpet substrates and cured, comprise: a) a selected type of vinyl acetate/ethylene (vae) copolymer dispersion which has been stabilized with emulsifiers and a cellulose ether-based protective colloid, and b) at least one carbon black based filler in the form of a dispersion/slurry with a solids content between 20 and 70%.
|Glass ceramics based antioxidants for the oxidation protection of carbon carbon composites|
Liquid anti-oxidants made by mixing specific chemical compositions disclosed herein, followed by thorough stirring so that a homogeneous blend of colloidal-like solutions are obtained. Such liquid anti-oxidants are applied to the surface of the carbon-carbon composite that is needed to be protected against oxidation by brushing, dipping, spraying, or other painting techniques, and allowed sufficient time for the anti-oxidants to penetrate into the subsurface region of the composite and to let dry in a dry atmosphere.
|Materials and methods for the preparation of nanocomposites|
Disclosed herein is an isolable colloidal particle comprising a nanoparticle and an inorganic capping agent bound to the surface of the nanoparticle, a method for making the same in a biphasic solvent mixture, and the formation of structures and solids from the isolable colloidal particle. The process can yield photovoltaic cells, piezoelectric crystals, thermoelectric layers, optoelectronic layers, light emitting diodes, ferroelectric layers, thin film transistors, floating gate memory devices, phase change layers, and sensor devices..
|Lock and key colloids and methods of manufacture|
A method and system for assembling building blocks of colloidal particles and also for shaping of colloids for self-assembly for manufacturing, processing and formation of compositions of matter. A first type of particle is selected as a “key” particle constructed to mate with a “lock” particle, the binding arising from depletion forces.
|In situ mixing and application of hydrocolloid systems for pre- and post harvest use on agricultural crops|
In-situ methods of applying ethylene response manipulation formulations are disclosed. The formulations comprise at least one ethylene response manipulation agent which is at least partially encapsulated, a polyol liquid medium, or a hydrogel medium, or a combination of polyol and hydrogel medium.
|Composition for surface decoration and the production of various objects, and preparation method thereof|
A composition for the decoration of surfaces and for producing decorative objects includes a colloidal mix containing an organic binder with physical drying (evaporation of solvents), pearly pigments, coloring pigments, and mainly aliphatic organic solvents. The decorative composition is in the form of a homogenized liquid product that can be poured on a horizontal surface so as to form a uniform colored coat that has a random mosaic appearance after a drying time..
|Coating composition and method for determining the uniformity and thickness of a no-rinse silane pretreatment|
The invention is directed to a detectable and stable composition comprising an organofunctional silane and/or hydrolyzate and/or partial or complete condensate thereof, a colloidal metal oxide, a water soluble organic dye having a positive charge and a counterion derived from a carboxylic acid of from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, and water. The invention is also directed to a method for determining the uniformity and film thickness of a detectable composition applied to a substrate comprising applying to the surface of the substrate the detectable composition and measuring an optical property of the applied coating, the resulting measurement being related to the uniformity of the applied composition..
|Photocatalytic co2 reduction system|
A system employing sunlight energy for reducing co2 into methane and water is disclosed. The system may include the use of a photoactive material including plasmonic nanoparticles and photocatalytic capped colloidal nanocrystals (pccn).
|Novel thickening polymer|
Polymer obtainable by radical emulsion polymerization of (a) at least one acidic vinyl monomer or salt thereof; (b) at least one nonionic vinyl monomer, particularly preferably a hydrophobic nonionic vinyl monomer; (c) at least one monomer containing an unsaturated end group and a polyoxyalkylene part; (d) at least one crosslinking monomer; and (e) optionally, a protective colloid, characterized in that the polymerization is controlled such that (f) the gel effect occurs, at least at times, achieved by adding monomers of type (a), (b), and (c) (dosing time) during 120 minutes; and such that (g) the crosslinking monomer (d) is added, at the very earliest, 10 minutes after the first addition of the monomers (a), (b), and (c).. .
|Polishing liquid composition for magnetic disk substrate|
The present invention provides a polishing composition for a magnetic disk substrate that can reduce scratches and surface roughness of a polished substrate without impairing the productivity, and a method for manufacturing a magnetic disk substrate using the polishing composition. The polishing composition for a magnetic disk substrate includes colloidal silica having a Δcv value of 0 to 10% and water.
|Skin contact material|
A substrate based skin contact material formed from a hydrocolloid having a silicone based component extending over regions of the substrate surface. The adhesive is formed non-continuously over the substrate to provide areas devoid of adhesive to allow appreciable moisture transfer between the skin and substrate and improve the skin friendliness of the material during use and allow convenient removal with avoidance of skin irritation..
|Synthetic cold seal adhesive|
An adhesively sealed product is disclosed comprising a first surface, a second surface, and an adhesive layer bonding said first surface to said second surface; said adhesive layer comprising a copolymer and a protective colloid, the copolymer being derived from monomers including one or more a c1 to c20 alkyl(meth)acrylates and having a glass transition temperature (tg) of from −40° c. To 0° c.
|Method for manufacturing artificial smouldering scent-stick|
A method for manufacturing the hemispherical light emitting portion of an artificial smouldering scent-stick comprises the steps of providing a light guide pipe and a light emitting element. The light guide pipe includes a bottom portion and a top portion opposite to the bottom portion.
|Method for enhancing the sensory appeal of foodstuffs|
A method by means of which both the sensory appeal and the dietary fiber content can be increased in a range of food products. By assuring that a suitable dietary fiber component is substantially completely converted to a fully-dispersed colloidal sol, such a material in this state can produce beneficial changes in the sensory and functional properties of certain foods to which it is added while being otherwise undetectable by the consumer.
|Microcrystalline cellulose compositions|
Ultra-fine microcrystalline cellulose compositions are disclosed which comprise co-attrited microcrystalline cellulose and a hydrocolloid. The compositions have a mean particle size of less than 10 microns.
|Method of reliable particle size control for preparing aqueous suspension of precious metal nanoparticles and the precious metal nanoparticle suspension prepared by the method thereof|
Disclosed is a method for making a colloidal suspension of precious metal nanoparticles. The method comprises providing a target material comprising a precious metal in a liquid dispersion medium in an ablation container.
|Laterally aligned colloidal nanorods assemblies|
Nanorods assemblies that have lengths in excess of 50 microns to meters are formed from contacting rice-shaped colloidal superparticles that are aligned along the long axis of the colloidal superparticles. The rice-shaped colloidal superparticles are formed from a multiplicity of nanorods with a high degree of association that is end to end to form colloidal superparticles that are in excess of three microns in length and have a length to diameter ratio of about three or more.
|Optoelectronic devices with all-inorganic colloidal nanostructured films|
Optoelectronic devices and methods of producing the same are disclosed. Methods may include forming a film from fused all-inorganic colloidal nanostructures, where the nanostructures may include inorganic nanoparticles and functional inorganic ligands, and the fused nanostructures may form an electrical network that is photoconductive.
|Method for the removal of submicron particulates from chlorinated water by sequentially adding a cationic polymer followed by adding an anionic polymer|
A method for removing submicron colloidal particulates, such as hydrocarbons, from water. The method includes first adding a soluble, cationic polymer, such as chitosan, a salt, or solution of chitosan to water containing the submicron particulates and a halogenating agent, followed by adding a soluble, anionic polymer or anionic salt to the water.
|Fluid absorbent adhesive articles|
A fluid absorbing pressure sensitive adhesive composition and adhesive articles including the fluid absorbing adhesive that have particular utility in the medical field, and in particular, for use with wound dressings is provided. The adhesive composition has superior fluid handling capacity, moisture vapor transmission and skin adhesion.
|Process for production of powder redispersible in water and use thereof|
The present invention relates to a process for the production of powders redispersible in water comprising an organic component and a water-soluble organic polymeric protective colloid. The organic component is dispersed and stabilized with the protective colloid in water to form a stable dispersion which is dried to form the powder redispersible in water.
|Nanosilica containing polycyanate ester compositions|
There are provided curable resin sols having a curable polycyanate ester resin and at least 30 weight percent of an essentially volatile-free, colloidal dispersion of substantially spherical surface-modified silica nanoparticles; wherein the curable resin sol comprises no greater than 200 parts per million by weight alkali metal and alkaline earth metal ions based on the total weight of the silica nanoparticles and curable polycyanate ester resin. There are also provided compositions comprising such curable resin sol and reinforcing fibers, a process for preparing such compositions, and various articles made using such curable resin sols and compositions..
|Metal compound coated colloidal particles process for making and use therefor|
Solid metal compound coated colloidal particles are made through a process by coating metal compounds onto colloidal particle surfaces. More specifically, metal compound precursors react with the base solution to form solid metal compounds.
|Single component developer composition|
Emulsion aggregation toner comprising: a resin; a wax; a colorant; an encapsulating shell; and a silica external additive comprising: first silica particles comprising fumed silica particles surface treated with octyldimethylsiloxane and having average particle diameter about 6-20 nm, present in amount of about 0.1-1% by weight of the toner; second silica particles comprising colloidal silica particles surface treated with hexamethyldisiloxane and having average particle diameter about 80-200 nm, present in amount of about 1-2% by weight of the toner; third silica particles comprising fumed silica particles surface treated with polydimethylsiloxane and having average particle diameter about 25-65 nm, present in amount of from about 0.5-1.5% by weight of the toner; and fourth silica particles comprising fumed silica particles surface treated with hexamethyldisiloxane and having average particle diameter about 25-65 nm, present in amount of about 1-2.5% by weight of the toner.. .
An illumination device including at least one light emitting element and a transparent lampshade is provided. The transparent lampshade is disposed on one side of the light emitting element and located on a light emitting path of the light emitting element.
|Colloidal sol and method of making same|
A colloidal sol and a method of making colloidal sol that is capable of controlling the resulting particle size and more specifically, using a potassium hydroxide process to obtain a colloidal sol having a single peak of average particle sizes.. .
|Process for sewage water purification|
Process and apparatus to remove colloids and nitrogen compounds from contaminated water by coagulating the colloids and separating them from the water. The water is then continuously oxidized with chlorine electrolytically to destroy the nitrogen compounds..
|Proteins and method for detection of lyme disease|
Recombinant b. Burgdorferi proteins, representative of the life cycle, are membrane-immobilized to capture antibodies in biological samples.
|Sol-gel silica additives|
The present disclosure describes toner additive packages comprising two or more colloidal silicas.. .
|Coating composition for an optical article, comprising a colloidal suspension of zirconia particles|
A coating composition includes a colloidal suspension of specific zirconia nano-particles, at least one epoxysilane and at least one catalyst. A method for preparing this composition, and its use for coating a transparent optical substrate, an optical article, such as an ophthalmic lens, including a transparent polymer substrate, especially an acrylic substrate, and a coating prepared from the composition, which is directly applied on the substrate, are also described..
|Impedance-based sensor for detection of catalyst coking in fuel reforming systems|
The present invention relates to a novel sensor for detecting the early stages of catalyst coking in fuel reforming systems and methods for making and using the same. The sensor may be manufactured by inkjet printing a colloidal suspension of ceramic powders to create thin (about 20 μm) catalytic and conductive elements of the sensor.
|System for harvesting oriented light - water splitting|
A system and method for splitting water to produce hydrogen and oxygen employing focused polarized sunlight energy is disclosed. Hydrogen and oxygen may then be stored for later use as fuels.
|System for harvesting oriented light - water splitting|
A system and method for splitting water to produce hydrogen and oxygen employing focused polarized sunlight energy is disclosed. Hydrogen and oxygen may then be stored for later use as fuels.
|Method of manufacture of products from geopolymer composite|
A method of manufacture of products from geopolymer composite shaped in a mold which is filled by casting of geopolymer composite in form of a precursor and after its hardening the casting is taken out from the mold and the casting surface is provided with a metallic layer. Before metal-plating casting surface with absorption capacity greater than 5% is treated to make it chemically stable so that ph of a leachate from 100 g of the bulk product in 1000 g distilled water after 24 hours does not exceed 9.
|Double-chip light emitting diode|
Disclosed is a double-chip led including a leadframe, a green chip, a blue chip, a transparent colloid and a red fluorescent layer. The green chip is installed at the bottom of the leadframe; the blue chip is installed at the bottom of the leadframe and adjacent to the green chip; the transparent colloid is sprayed or coated onto the green chip and the blue chip; and the red fluorescent layer is disposed on the transparent colloid and excited by a green light source or a blue light source to produce a mixed light source.
|Device for measuring the amount of free fluid in a colloid in a horizontal position|
A device for testing the amount of free fluid in a colloid comprises: a first container, wherein the first container has a central axis that spans the length of the first container, wherein the length of the first container is greater than the width and height of the first container, and wherein the central axis of the first container is oriented in a substantially horizontal position during the testing. Methods of using the device include: optically determining the height of free fluid in the container after the period of time has elapsed and using a formula to determine the volume of the free fluid; or removing a plug from a plug tube that is operationally connected to the container; and draining the free fluid from the container into a measurement device..
|Colloidal silica polishing composition and method for manufacturing synthetic quartz glass substrates using the same|
A polishing composition comprising a colloidal dispersion of spherical silica particles and associated silica particles as abrasive is provided. When used in the step of polishing synthetic quartz glass substrates, the polishing composition ensures a higher polishing rate than conventional colloidal silica and is effective for preventing any microscopic defects on the substrate surface, thus providing the substrate with a high smoothness.
|Nanosilica containing bismaleimide compositions|
There are provided curable resin sols comprising an essentially volatile-free, colloidal dispersion of substantially spherical nanosilica particles in a curable bisimide resin, said particles having surface-bonded organic groups which render said particles compatible with said curable bisimide resin. There are also provided compositions comprising such curable resin sol and reinforcing fibers, a process for preparing such compositions, and various articles made using such curable resin sols and compositions..
|Methods for diagnosing cancer by characterization of tumor cells associated with pleural or serous fluids|
A method for diagnosing or differentially diagnosing a cancer characterized by the presence of cancer cells in the pleural fluid of a mammalian subject, the method comprising contacting a sample of pleural fluid of the subject with colloidal magnetic particles coupled to a ligand which binds to a determinant on a cancer cell, but does not bind above a baseline threshold to other cellular and non-cellular components in pleural fluid; subjecting the pleural fluid-magnetic particle mixture to a magnetic field to produce a cell fraction enriched in ligand coupled-magnetic particle-bound cancer cells, if present in the pleural fluid; and analyzing the enriched fraction for the number of cancer cells in the pleural fluid. In certain aspects, this method involves preparing the pleural fluids for the above-noted method steps by, e.g., dilution of unprocessed pleural fluid.
|Production method of ceramic honeycomb structure, and ceramic honeycomb structure|
A method for producing a ceramic honeycomb structure comprising a ceramic honeycomb body having large numbers of longitudinal cells partitioned by porous cell walls having porosity of 50% or more, and a peripheral wall formed on a peripheral surface of the ceramic honeycomb body, comprising the steps of extruding moldable ceramic material to form a honeycomb-structured ceramic green body; machining a peripheral portion of the green body or a sintered body obtained from the green body to remove part of cell walls in the peripheral portion to obtain a ceramic honeycomb body having longitudinal grooves on a peripheral surface; applying colloidal metal oxide to a peripheral surface of the ceramic honeycomb body and drying it, and then applying a coating material comprising ceramic aggregate having an average particle size of 1 μm or more to form the peripheral wall.. .