|| List of recent Cladding-related patents
| Multi-core optical fibers with single mode and multimode core elements|
Multi-core optical fibers are disclosed herein. According to one embodiment, a multi-core optical fiber includes a common outer cladding formed from silica-based glass and having a cladding index of refraction ncl.
| Multiple lp mode fiber designs for mode division multiplexing|
The specification describes modified step index and graded index (grin) fibers with low core relative delta (near 0.8%) which have desirable properties for transmission. These lower delta fibers have lower attenuation losses due to reduced rayleigh scattering, which is desirable to improve performance in multiple mode multiplexing.
| Optical fiber and optical communication system including the same|
An optical fiber according to an embodiment of the present invention is provided with a center core, a side core, and a cladding. The center core includes a ring part where a relative index difference varies discontinuously, in its peripheral region, and when a is a radius from a core center to an outside of the ring part and c is a radius to a position where the relative index difference is maximum in the side core, an index profile is realized in a shape where c/a is in the range of 2.25 to 2.50, so as to enable setting of a dispersion value, a cable cutoff wavelength, a bending loss in the diameter of 20 mm, and an effective area in desired ranges..
| Optical fiber|
The present invention relates to an optical fiber having a structure to enable both prevention of resin coating combustion due to leaked light, and low-loss light transmission. The optical fiber comprises a core region, and a cladding region.
| Particulate metal fuels used in power generation, recycling systems, and small modular reactors|
A metal particulate fuel system is described. The metal fuel system may include particulate metal fuel for use in nuclear reactors.
| Optical fiber amplifier including rare-earth-doped cladding region|
A rare earth doped optical fiber amplifier is configured to have an enlarged core region and a trench formed adjacent to the core, where at least an inner portion of the trench is also formed to include a rare earth dopant. The presence of the rare earth dopant in the inner region of the cladding minimizes transient power fluctuations within the amplifier as the number of optical signals being amplified changes.
| Use of recycled packaging in polymer composite products|
A polymer composite and its method of manufacture using a recycled multilayer material. An example of the recycled multilayer material is comprised of a polyethylene/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum film that may be extruded with organic filler to obtain desirable performance in wood-substitute products such as deck boards, railing, fencing, pergolas, residential cladding/siding, sheet products, and other applications..
| Spacer for retaining cladding element on structural building element|
A spacer for retaining a cladding element on a building element in a spaced apart relationship has a constant cross-section in its longitudinal direction. The spacer is an at least substantially hollow structure having at least one external wall enclosing an interior space.
|Corrosion and wear-resistant claddings|
In one aspect, composite articles are described herein comprising wear-resistant claddings demonstrating improved corrosion resistance. A composite article described herein, in some embodiments, comprises a metal or alloy substrate and a cladding adhered to the substrate, the cladding comprising cemented carbide particles and an alloying additive dispersed in a nickel-based alloy matrix, wherein the alloying additive comprises at least one of copper and molybdenum..
|Optical fiber and optical transmission system|
An inexpensive low-attenuation optical fiber 1 suitable for use as an optical transmission line in an optical access network is a silica based glass optical fiber and includes a core 11 including the center axis, an optical cladding 12 surrounding the core, and a jacket 13 surrounding the optical cladding. The core contains geo2 and has a relative refractive index difference Δcore, based on the optical cladding, greater than or equal to 0.35% and less than or equal to 0.50% and has a refractive index volume v greater than or equal to 0.045 μm2 and less than or equal to 0.095 μm2.
|X-ray waveguide and x-ray measurement system|
An x-ray waveguide having a curved structure formed of a core and two claddings that sandwich the core and are mutually opposed, wherein when a y-axis is defined using as an origin a center of a circle, which defines a curvature radius of an interface a between a cladding a present on an inner circumference side of the curved structure of the two claddings, and the core, perpendicular to a tangent at an arbitrary point s and in a direction from the origin toward the interface b, a refractive index real part of the core in the interface a at a y0 is larger than a refractive index real part of the core in the interface b at a y1, and the refractive indexes become equal or larger as the y is increased.. .
|Group-iii nitride semiconductor laser device, and method for fabricating group-iii nitride semiconductor laser device|
A iii-nitride semiconductor laser device including: a laser structure including a support base and a semiconductor region, the support base including a hexagonal iii-nitride semiconductor and having a semipolar primary surface, and the semiconductor region being provided on the semipolar primary surface of the support base; and an electrode provided on the semiconductor region of the laser structure, the semiconductor region including a first cladding layer, a second cladding layer, and an active layer.. .
The display fixture system of the subject invention comprises a framework on which a removable cover is secured. Each visible structural member of the framework is covered with a removable cover or cladding in which the vertical members are held in place by the horizontal members.
|Photoacoustic measurement apparatus and probe unit for use therewith, and endoscope|
A photoacoustic measurement apparatus which includes a diffuser plate which diffuses laser light inputted from the upstream side of an optical system, a lens system which focuses the laser light diffused by the diffuser plate, and an optical fiber cable which includes an optical fiber having a core and cladding structure and is disposed such that the laser light focused by the lens system is inputted from one end, in which the light projection unit projects the laser light guided by the optical fiber cable as the measuring light. In a photoacoustic measurement performed by guiding the measuring light using an optical fiber, high energy measuring light can be guided while inhibiting end face damage of the optical fiber..
|Photoacoustic measurement apparatus and probe unit for use therewith|
A photoacoustic measurement apparatus which includes a diffuser plate for diffusing laser light inputted from the upstream side of an optical system, a lens system for focusing the laser light diffused by the diffuser plate, and an optical fiber cable which includes an optical fiber having a core and cladding structure and a light energy resistant structure at an end portion on the side of the lens system, and is disposed such that the laser light focused by the lens is inputted from one end, in which the light projection unit projects the laser light guided by the optical fiber cable as the measuring light. In a photoacoustic measurement performed by guiding the measuring light using an optical fiber, high energy measuring light can be guided while inhibiting end face damage of the optical fiber..
|Optical coupling system for two optical waveguides|
An optical coupling system for coupling a first optical waveguide having a first core surrounded by a first sheath to a second optical waveguide having a second core surrounded by a second sheath. An end face of the first core of the first optical waveguide abuts an end face of the second core of the second optical waveguide at a coupling location and the second core is flush with the first core in the axial direction, wherein, in the region of the coupling location, over at least part of a predetermined axial portion, both the second sheath of the second optical waveguide and the first sheath of the first optical waveguide together form a cladding of the optical waveguide in the predetermined portion..
A superluminescent diode has, above a substrate, a layered portion including at least a first cladding layer, a luminescent layer, and a second cladding layer in this order, and an optical waveguide having a refractive-index guiding structure is provided in the layered portion. The optical waveguide includes: a first mesa portion formed by processing the second cladding layer into the first mesa portion having a first width; and a second mesa portion formed by processing the first cladding layer, the luminescent layer, and the second cladding layer into the second mesa portion having a second width greater than the first width..
|Semiconductor light emitting element and light emitting device|
In a semiconductor light emitting element outputting light indicating green color by using a group iii nitride semiconductor, light emission output is improved. A semiconductor light emitting element includes: an n-type cladding layer containing n-type impurities (si); a light emitting layer laminated on the n-type cladding layer; and a p-type cladding layer containing p-type impurities and laminated on the light emitting layer.
|Single mode propagation in fibers and rods with large leakage channels|
Various embodiments include large cores fibers that can propagate few modes or a single mode while introducing loss to higher order modes. Some of these fibers are holey fibers that comprising cladding features such as air-holes.
|Methods and systems for cladding surfaces of components using hot wire laser welding|
A system and method of joining workpieces is provided where a clad layer is deposited in between the components and a weld bead is providing such that it contacts the clad layer. The system and method provided minimizes the heat input into the components by using the clad layers to provide the joining strength between the pipe components..
|Semiconductor light emtting device|
A semiconductor light emitting device includes a substrate, a buffer layer disposed on the substrate, the buffer layer comprising aluminum nitride, a composition grading layer disposed on the buffer layer, the composition grading layer comprising first aluminum nitride and second aluminum nitride, a capping layer disposed on the composition grading layer, and a cladding layer disposed on the capping layer. A composition of the first aluminum nitride and a composition of the second aluminum nitride change gradually in an alternating manner..
|Laser welding consumable|
A system and method for heating a filler wire (consumable) using a laser in brazing, cladding, building up, filling, overlaying, welding, and joining applications. The filler wire includes a first surface that absorbs energy from a laser beam and a second surface separated from said first surface by a thickness t that is in a range of 0.010 inch to 0.045 inch.
|Method and system of controlling heating current for hot wire processes|
A system and method for controlling heating current for hot-wire processes in any of brazing, cladding, building up, filling, hard-facing overlaying, welding, and joining applications is provided. The system includes a high intensity energy source configured to heat at least one workpiece to create a molten puddle.
|Methods for the production of clad steel products|
A method is disclosed of producing a billet which can be heated and rolled or otherwise worked with conventional equipment to form a product with a steel core and a cladding of an alloy including stainless steel, nickel-chrome, nickel-copper or copper-nickel. For a product such as corrosion resistant reinforcing bar, the billet includes a solid steel core inserted in a tube of the alloy on which swaging operations are carried out, decreasing the transverse size of discrete portions of the tube.
|Modular, dynamically sized and shaped, industrial-liquid-containment system and methods of use|
What is disclosed is a portable, modular, and dynamically sized and shaped, above-ground, industrial liquid-containment system. Typically, the system has an outer-containment perimeter and an inner-containment perimeter (a reservoir), thus providing two barriers for environmental protection.
|Optical fiber for chemical sensor|
An optical fiber for an optical fiber sensor and a chemical sensor using the same are disclosed. The optical fiber includes a core area, and a suspended cladding area formed around the core area and having at least one cladding hole.
|Micromodule cables and breakout cables therefor|
A breakout cable includes a polymer jacket and a plurality of micromodules enclosed within the jacket. Each micromodule has a plurality of bend resistant optical fibers and a polymer sheath comprising pvc surrounding the bend resistant optical fibers.
|Optical semiconductor device and method of manufacturing the same|
An optical semiconductor device includes a semiconductor substrate; a lower cladding layer formed over the semiconductor substrate; a quantum well active layer formed on the lower cladding layer; a diffraction grating layer formed over the quantum well active layer and having diffraction gratings formed in a surface thereof; and an upper cladding layer formed on the diffraction gratings of the diffraction grating layer. Further, a band gap in outer regions of the quantum well active layer that are adjacent to outer end surfaces of the optical semiconductor device is greater than the band gap in an inner region of the quantum well active layer that is located between the outer regions, and a thickness of one or more layers, which include the lower cladding layer and positioned between the semiconductor substrate and the quantum well active layer, is greater than or equal to 2.3 μm..
|Few mode rare earth doped optical fibers for optical amplifiers, and amplifiers using such fibers|
According to some embodiments a few moded optical fiber includes a glass core structured to provide light amplification at an amplification wavelength and a cladding surrounding the core. According to some embodiments the core of the few moded optical fiber includes a portion that has an average concentration of rare earth dopant which is lower by at least 30%, and preferably by at least 50%, than the average concentration of the rare earth dopant at another portion of the core that is situated further from the core center..
|Laser processing apparatus|
A laser processing apparatus has an optical transmitting unit for guiding a laser beam to a focusing unit. The optical transmitting unit includes a focusing lens for focusing the laser beam, an optical fiber unit for inputting the focused laser beam and guiding it to the focusing unit.
|Method and system of edging cladding operation|
A system and method for edging a deposit layer in any of cladding, building up, and hard-facing applications is provided. The system includes a high intensity heat source that heats a workpiece and creates a molten puddle.
|Method of making a heat exchanger with an enhance material system|
The disclosure relates to a method of manufacturing a heat exchanger assembly with an enhanced material system. The enhanced material system includes refrigerant tubes extruded from a high purity aa3000 series alloy billet having about 1% by weight (wt %) mn and pre-braze treated with either a reactive zinc flux or a mixture of elemental zinc powder and a controlled atmosphere brazed (cab) flux applied by glass plasma or organic binder, such as an organic binder, fins formed from modified a aa3003 alloy having less than 0.05 wt % cu and from 1.2 to 1.8% wt % zn, and header manifolds manufactured from a aa3000 series alloy with a aa4000 series cladding having 0.9 to 1.1 wt % zn.
|Optical fiber and optical transmission system|
An optical fiber includes a core portion and a cladding portion that is formed on an outer periphery of the core portion and has a refractive index lower than a maximum refractive index of the core portion. Characteristics at a wavelength of 1550 nm are an effective core area of a fundamental propagation mode of equal to or larger than 120 μm2, an effective core area of a first higher-order propagation mode of equal to or larger than 170 μm2, and an effective refractive index of the first higher-order propagation mode of larger than the refractive index of the cladding portion by equal to or larger than 0.0005..
|Optical fiber and optical transmission line|
An optical fiber, including (i) an inner core having an α-power refractive index profile, (ii) an outer core having a refractive index of n1′, and (iii) a cladding having a refractive index of n2 (n1′<n2<n1), is configured such that a depth of a trench, defined by n2−n1′, is sufficiently increased.. .
|Sensor fiber having a multicore optical waveguide including fiber bragg gratings|
A sensor fiber for the detection of changes of temperature, bending, and/or torsion includes a multicore optical waveguide with a fiber bragg grating (fbg) structure. One embodiment contains at least two fbg cores and a surrounding cladding.
|High mobility strained channels for fin-based transistors|
Techniques are disclosed for incorporating high mobility strained channels into fin-based transistors (e.g., finfets such as double-gate, trigate, etc), wherein a stress material is cladded onto the channel area of the fin. In one example embodiment, silicon germanium (sige) is cladded onto silicon fins to provide a desired stress, although other fin and cladding materials can be used.
|Semiconductor light device and manufacturing method for the same|
Provided is a semiconductor light device comprising a semiconductor substrate having a first conduction type; a first cladding layer having the first conduction type deposited above the semiconductor substrate; an active layer; a second cladding layer having a second conduction type; and a contact layer. The active layer includes a window portion that is disordered via diffusion of vacancies and a non-window portion having less disordering than the window portion, and the contact layer includes a first region and a second region that is below the first region and has greater affinity for hydrogen than the first region..
|Thermal clip system and apparatus for a building wall assembly|
A thermal clip system suitable for use with a wall assembly. The clip comprises a base section and an arm section.
|Nitride semiconductor light-emitting device|
A nitride semiconductor light-emitting device having an optical waveguide includes, in the following order, at least: a first cladding layer; an active layer; and a second cladding layer, wherein the second cladding layer includes (i) a transparent conductive layer comprising a transparent conductor and (ii) a nitride semiconductor layer comprising a nitride semiconductor, the nitride semiconductor layer being formed closer to the active layer than the transparent conductive layer.. .
|Optical component, optical fiber amplifier, and optical fiber ring resonator|
An optical component includes a multicore optical fiber and an i/o optical fiber. The multicore optical fiber has longitudinally extending cores within a common cladding.
|Nitride semiconductor ultraviolet light-emitting element|
An active layer including an algan semiconductor layer having a band gap energy of 3.4 ev or higher and a p-type cladding layer configured of a p-type algan semiconductor layer and located above the active layer are formed in a first region on the n-type cladding layer, the first region being in a plane parallel to a surface of the n-cladding layer configured of an n-type algan semiconductor layer. An n-electrode metal layer making ohmic contact with the n-type cladding layer is formed on an adjacent region to the first region in a second region which is a region other than the first region on the n-type cladding layer.
|Hot-wire consumable to provide weld with increased wear resistance|
A filler wire (consumable) for depositing wear-resistant materials in a system for any of brazing, cladding, building up, filling, hard-facing overlaying, welding, and joining applications is provided. The consumable is composed of base filler materials consistent with commonly known compositions.
|Hot-wire consumable to provide weld with increased wear resistance|
A filler wire (consumable) for depositing wear-resistant materials in a system for any of brazing, cladding, building up, filling, hard-facing overlaying, welding, and joining applications. The consumable is composed of base filler materials consistent with commonly known compositions.
|Hot-wire consumable to provide self-lubricating weld or clad|
A filler wire (consumable) for depositing self-lubricating materials in a system for any of brazing, cladding, building up, filling, hard-facing overlaying, welding, and joining applications. The filler wire is composed of a base filler material consistent with commonly known compositions.
|Optical semiconductor device having ridge structure formed on active layer containing p-type region and its manufacture method|
A p-type cladding layer (3) of p-type semiconductor is formed over a substrate. An active layer (5) including a p-type semiconductor region is disposed over the p-type cladding layer.
|Opto-electric hybrid board|
An opto-electric hybrid board which is excellent in the mountability of an optical element and in flexibility is provided. The opto-electric hybrid board includes an electric circuit board, an optical waveguide, and metal layers.
|Semiconductor light-emitting element and light-emitting device using the same|
A semiconductor light-emitting element includes: a substrate; a semiconductor stacked film including a first cladding layer of a first conductivity type formed on the substrate, a light-emitting layer formed on the first cladding layer, and a second cladding layer of a second conductivity type formed on the light-emitting layer, and having an optical waveguide; a first electrode formed so as to be electrically connected to the first cladding layer; and a second electrode formed so as to be electrically connected to the second cladding layer. The light-emitting layer generates guided light that is guided in the optical waveguide, and non-guided light that is not guided in the optical waveguide, and the non-guided light is emitted from one of the substrate side and the semiconductor stacked layer side to the outside..
|Semiconductor light-emitting device|
A semiconductor light-emitting device includes a substrate; a first cladding layer formed on the substrate; a first guide layer formed on the first cladding layer; an active layer formed on the first guide layer; a second guide layer formed on the active layer; a contact layer formed on the second guide layer; a cladding electrode formed on the contact layer, and made of conductive metal oxide; and a pad electrode electrically coupled to the cladding electrode. The semiconductor light-emitting device includes a mesa structure including the contact layer.
|Hybrid composite for erosion resistant helicopter blades|
A protective hybrid composite for a rotor blade is based on the use of tape cast ceramic layers densified by pre-ceramic polymer infiltration methods and laminated together with polymer matrix composite prepregs, with or without an embedded metallic mesh, to form a conforming helicopter blade cladding that is laminated to the blade surface for added erosion protection. The hybrid composite is fabricated to net shape and laminated to the blade using either an adhesive or a polymer composite prepreg inner layer.
|Holey optical fiber with random pattern of holes and method for making same|
A random array of holes is created in an optical fiber by gas generated during fiber drawing. The gas forms bubbles which are drawn into long, microscopic holes.
|Sealing device for a pouched strip to a cladding film such as to obtain a blister strip|
A sealing device (d) for sealing a pouched strip (n) to a cladding film (p) for obtaining a blister strip (b) has a pair of pair of heat-welding plates (10) for sealing, by heat-welding, the film (p) and the strip (n), thereby obtaining the blister strip (b). A sliding element (11), for sliding the blister strip (b) released by the pair of heat welding plates (10) is provided with a curved sliding surface (110) for receiving the blister strip (b).
|Modular building panel|
An improved modular building panel and system for building construction is disclosed. The improved modular building panel comprises a novel honeycomb or lattice core comprising multiple layers of corrugated, preferably metal, components mechanically connected by any means known in the art, but which may be chemical bonding.
|Method for manufacturing external cladding for laminate battery|
In method for manufacturing an external cladding for a laminate battery according to the present invention, austenitic stainless steel foil having a thermoplastic resin layer on one of a front surface and a rear surface and a lubricating film on the other surface is used as a material, the stainless steel foil is disposed such that the surface provided with the thermoplastic resin layer opposes a punch, and drawing is implemented on the stainless steel foil without using lubricating oil in a condition where an annular region of the stainless steel foil, which is contacted by a shoulder portion of the punch, is set at a temperature of 20° c. Or lower, and an exterior region on an exterior of the annular region is set at a temperature between 40° c.
|Push on system for restoring, repairing, reinforcing, protecting, insulating and/or cladding structures|
Methods and apparatus are provided for repairing existing structures. A portion of the existing structure is covered with the repair structure.
|Flame sprayed bulk solidifying amorphous alloy cladding layer|
Disclosed is a method of coating a substrate with a bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy using a thermal spraying technique to provide a coating that is substantially amorphous. Some embodiments include using a substrate having a thickness greater than the critical casting thickness of the bulk-solidifying amorphous alloy, and using a brazing material to assist in adhering the coating to the surface..
A multicore fiber includes a cladding and a plurality of core elements which is provided in the cladding and includes a core, an inner cladding layer that surrounds the core, and a low-refractive index layer that surrounds the inner cladding layer and has a lower average refractive index than the cladding and the inner cladding layer. The plurality of core elements is arranged such that a specific core element is surrounded by three or more core elements, and a low-refractive index layer of a partial core element of the plurality of core elements is configured to have larger light confinement loss in the core than low-refractive index layers of the other partial core elements..
|Method for producing bundle structure, method for connecting fibers, bundle terminal structure, and fiber connection structure|
A multicore fiber has a plurality of cores formed at predetermined distances and surrounded by a cladding. A bundle structure includes optical fibers joined in a close-packed arrangement.
|Semiconductor light emitting device|
A high luminance semiconductor light emitting device including a metallic reflecting layer formed using a non-transparent semiconductor substrate is provided. The device includes a gaas substrate; a metal layer disposed on the gaas substrate; and a light emitting diode structure.
|Method and system of using induction heating to heat consumable during hot wire process|
A system and method for use in brazing, cladding, building up, filling, overlaying, welding, and joining applications is provided. The system includes a high intensity energy source configured to heat at least one workpiece to create a molten puddle and a feeder system that includes a wire feeder configured to feed a consumable to the molten puddle.
|Multi-wire welding consumable|
A consumable for use in any of brazing, cladding, building up, filling, hard-facing overlaying, welding, and joining applications is provided. In some embodiments, the consumable includes a first consumable portion having an outer surface and a second consumable portion having an outer surface.
|Method and system for heating consumable during hot wire|
A system and method for use in brazing, cladding, building up, filling, overlaying, welding, and joining applications is provided. The system includes a first laser beam system which directs a first laser beam at a surface of at least one workpiece to create a molten puddle on the surface and a wire feeder which advances a consumable to the molten puddle so that the consumable contacts the molten puddle.
|Hot-wire consumable incapable of sustaining an arc|
A system and method for using filler wire in hot wire applications, e.g., brazing, cladding, building up, filling, overlaying, welding, and joining applications, is provided. The filler wire has a first section that has a first resistance per unit length.
|Alternative current (ac) power line|
An alternative current (ac) power line, comprising: at least two conductive lines having an insulation sheath, and an insulation protective outer layer wrapping the aforementioned at least two conductive lines. The insulation protective outer layer includes: an insulation cladding layer and a spiral enhancing layer.
|Wall structure with enhanced cladding support|
A building structure includes a framework of: (a) metal studs having walls that define an interior channel; (b) a cellular backing material extending lengthwise within the interior channel of at least a portion of the metal studs; (c) a thermally insulating layer extending over multiple metal studs; (d) fasteners extending through the thermally insulating layer, through a wall of a metal stud and into the cellular backing material within the interior channel of the metal stud; and (e) a cladding attached to the framework of metal studs by means of the fasteners.. .
|Method for production of optical waveguides and coupling and devices made from the same|
Novel processing methods for production of high-refractive index contrast and low loss optical waveguides are disclosed. In one embodiment, a “channel” waveguide is produced by first depositing a lower cladding material layer with a low refractive index on a base substrate, a refractory metal layer, and a top diffusion barrier layer.
|Interlayer for device including nft and cladding layers|
A device that includes a near field transducer (nft); at least one cladding layer adjacent the nft; and a discontinuous metal layer positioned between the nft and the at least one cladding layer.. .
|Method and apparatus for forming clad metal products|
The present invention concerns methods and apparatus for forming a clad product, such as a clad pipe or tube. Particular embodiments include a method for metallurgically bonding cladding material onto a metal substrate, the method including a step of providing a metal substrate comprising a pipe or a tube having a cladding composition arranged along an interior surface of the substrate to form a coated substrate, the interior surface arranged within an interior cavity of the substrate.
|Optical component manufacturing method and optical component manufacturing apparatus|
A method for manufacturing an optical component, the method includes taking an image of an end face of an optical waveguide component including a core and a cladding, aligning a position of the core with a position of a mold, on a basis of the position of the core within the taken image, and forming a lens on a surface of an optical film positioned at the end face of the optical waveguide component by pressing the mold onto the optical film.. .
|Analog floating-gate capacitor with improved data retention in a silicided integrated circuit|
An analog floating-gate electrode in an integrated circuit, and method of fabricating the same, in which trapped charge can be stored for long durations. The analog floating-gate electrode is formed in a polycrystalline silicon gate level, and includes portions serving as a transistor gate electrode, a plate of a metal-to-poly storage capacitor, and a plate of poly-to-active tunneling capacitors.
|Waveguide assisted solar energy harvesting|
A photovoltaic (pv) system includes a fiber optical waveguide comprising an active core that hosts material configured to absorb and emit light, a cladding layer surrounding the active core, the cladding layer being configured to allow ambient light to pass through the cladding layer, and an exit port located proximate an end of the waveguide. The pv system further comprises one or more solar cells disposed at the exit port of the waveguide.
A sawing bead for use in a sawing cord is described and claimed. Sawing cords are used for cutting hard and brittle materials.