|| List of recent Capacitor-related patents
|Reactive power supply|
Embodiments are directed to a reactive power supply circuit comprising: a capacitor configured to provide an output of the power supply circuit based on power received from a power source, a processor configured to control the output based on at least one of: a state of a first switch that selectively couples the capacitor to the power source based on a detected level of the output, and a state of at least one second switch that selectively couples the capacitor to the power source based on a determination of a state of one or more loads coupled to the output.. .
|Method and system for a configurable low-noise amplifier with programmable band-selection filters|
Methods and systems for a configurable low-noise amplifier with programmable band-selection filters may comprise a low-noise amplifier (lna) with a low pass filter coupled to a first input of the lna and a high pass filter coupled to a second input of the lna. The low pass filter and the high pass filter may also be coupled to a signal source input.
|Second order harmonic cancellation for radio frequency front-end switches|
A radio frequency switch circuit with improved harmonic suppression and low insertion loss has an antenna port and a plurality of signal ports. A plurality of transistor switch circuits, are connected to a respective one of the plurality of signal ports and to the antenna port.
|Electrical connector having capacitor with low cross talk|
An electrical connector includes an insulative housing having a plurality of walls formed a plurality of passageways thereof, a plurality of contacts received in the passageways, and a capacitor series connecting with the contact.. .
|Filter circuit, integrated circuit, communication module, and communication apparatus|
There is provided a filter circuit including one or more first capacitors which accumulate and emit a charge at a predetermined timing, one or more first amplifiers which are provided from an input terminal side to the one or more first capacitors and output a current proportional to an input voltage into the input terminal, and one or more second amplifiers which are provided from an output terminal side to the one or more first capacitors and output a current proportional to an output voltage from the output terminal. A proportionality coefficient of each of the one or more first amplifiers and each of the one or more second amplifiers is arbitrarily set..
|Semiconductor device including memory cell having charge accumulation layer|
A semiconductor device includes mos transistors, capacitor elements, a voltage generating circuit, a contact plug, and a memory cell. The mos transistor and the capacitor element are formed on a first one of the element regions and a second one of the element regions, respectively.
Provided is a memory device in which memory capacity per unit area is increased without making the manufacturing process complicated. The memory device includes a plurality of memory cells, a plurality of word lines, and a plurality of bit lines.
|Method for balancing capacitors in an inverter|
The pwm modulating method comprises the following steps: detecting actual voltage values (vc1, vc1, vc2, vc3 . .
|Power converter and method for manufacturing power converter|
A power converter includes a switch element, a snubber capacitor, and a connection conductor configured to connect the switch element and the snubber capacitor to each other, and at least a part of the connection conductor is arranged to be held between the snubber capacitor and an electrode of the switch element.. .
Aspects of the disclosure provide a circuit. The circuit includes a depletion mode transistor coupled to a power supply and a current path coupled with the depletion mode transistor in series to provide a current to charge a capacitor.
|Five-level power converter, and control method and control apparatus for the same|
A five-level power converter and a control method for the same are provided. The five-level power converter includes an inverter and at least a rectifier, where the rectifier includes at least one rectifier control circuit and four capacitors which are divided into two groups, each with two capacitors connected in parallel, where a first end of a first capacitor to a fourth capacitor is grounded; the rectifier control circuit is configured to input a current to a second end of the first capacitor to the fourth capacitor; and a polarity of charges accumulated at the second ends of the first capacitor and the second capacitor is opposite to a polarity of charges accumulated at the second ends of the third capacitor and the fourth capacitor; and the inverter includes a discharge control circuit, and a first inductor unit and a first load connected in series..
|Integrated electrical and thermal solution for inverter dc-link capacitor packaging|
An improved capacitor packaging solution is presented that incorporates both thermal and electrical considerations. A package can include capacitor elements electrically coupled to a bus bar, and a thermally enhanced isolation layer between the bus bar and a case.
|Solid electrolytic capacitor element, method for manufacturing same, and conductive paste|
Provided is a solid electrolytic capacitor element which is reduced in esr deterioration due to thermal shock and suppressed in variation in esr changes, while having good initial characteristics of esr. This solid electrolytic capacitor element is provided, on the surface of an anode body, with at least a dielectric layer, a solid electrolyte layer, a carbon layer that contains a first resin component and a conductive layer that contains a second resin component.
|Solid electrolytic capacitor and method for manufacturing same|
A solid electrolytic capacitor including a positive electrode including a sintered body of metal particles of tantalum or an alloy of tantalum, a dielectric layer formed on a surface of the positive electrode; and an electrolyte layer formed on the dielectric layer. A cv value (a value of product of capacitance and voltage) of the metal particles is 100000 μf·v/g or more.
|Solid electrolytic capacitor containing conductive polymer particles|
A solid electrolytic capacitor that contains an anode body, dielectric overlying the anode body, adhesion coating overlying the dielectric, and solid electrolyte overlying the adhesion coating. The solid electrolyte contains an inner conductive polymer layer and outer conductive polymer layer, at least one of which is formed from a plurality of pre-polymerized conductive polymer particles.
|Solid electrolytic capacitor containing a multi-layered adhesion coating|
A solid electrolytic capacitor that contains an anode body, dielectric located over and/or within the anode body, an adhesion coating overlying the dielectric, and a solid electrolyte overlying the dielectric and adhesion coating that contains a conductive polymer. The adhesion coating is multi-layered and employs a resinous layer in combination with a discontinuous layer containing a plurality of discrete nanoprojections of a manganese oxide (e.g., manganese dioxide)..
|Solid electrolytic capacitor containing a pre-coat layer|
A solid electrolytic capacitor that contains an anode body formed from an electrically conductive powder, dielectric located over and/or within the anode body, an adhesion coating overlying the dielectric, and a solid electrolyte overlying the adhesion coating is provided. The powder has a high specific charge and in turn a relative dense packing configuration.
|Solid electrolyte capacitor and a method for manufacturing the same|
There is provided an electrolyte capacitor, which has a low esr, and is superior in the heat resistance and reliable under a hot condition. The electrolyte capacitors in constructed by including a conductive polymer and a conductive auxiliary liquid having a lower conductivity than usual electrolyte, having a structure below.
|Inkjet-printed flexible electronic components from graphene oxide|
An electrical component includes an inkjet-printed graphene electrode. Graphene oxide flakes are deposited on a substrate in a graphene oxide ink using an inkjet printer.
|High aspect ratio openings|
A capacitor forming method includes forming an electrically conductive support material over a substrate, with the support material containing at least 25 at % carbon. The method includes forming an opening through at least the support material where the opening has an aspect ratio of at least 20:1 within a thickness of the support material.
|Vertical metal insulator metal capacitor|
A method of forming a capacitor comprises forming a first electrode of the capacitor over a substrate. The first electrode includes a bottom conductive plane and a plurality of first vertical conductive structures on the bottom conductive plane.
|Disk drive read circuit comprising an ac coupled sense amplifier for amplifying a read signal|
A disk drive read circuit is disclosed comprising a read element for generating a read signal, and a sense amplifier comprising an input terminal coupled through a first capacitor to the read element and an output terminal coupled through a second capacitor to a transmission line, wherein the sense amplifier is for amplifying the read signal.. .
It is an object of the present invention to provide a display device where expansion of a frame portion over a substrate, which results from formation of a lead wiring over an active matrix substrate, is minimally suppressed to realize a narrow frame. According to one feature of a display device of the present invention, a chamfer portion is formed at least at an end portion of an active matrix substrate having a pixel portion of a pair of substrates disposed to be opposed to each other, and wirings (a source line, a gate line, a storage capacitor line, a leading out wiring, and the like) over the active matrix substrate are electrically connected by a common wiring formed in the chamfer portion..
|Display device and electronic device including the display device|
To provide a display device including a transistor that includes an oxide semiconductor and has favorable characteristics, a pixel electrode electrically connected to the transistor, and a capacitor electrically connected to the pixel electrode. To provide a display device that can be manufactured at low cost.
|Liquid crystal display device, compensation circuit and tft voltage shutdown method thereof|
The present invention provides a liquid crystal display device, compensation circuit and tft voltage shutdown method. The compensation circuit includes first capacitor, first resistor, second resistor and operational amplifier; wherein first terminal of first capacitor connected to receiving terminal of gate driver of lcd for receiving shutdown voltage to shutdown tft; first terminal of first resistor connected to second terminal of first capacitor; first terminal of second resistor connected to second terminal of first resistor and second terminal of second resistor connected to output terminal of operational amplifier; positive input terminal of operational amplifier receiving an externally supplied shutdown voltage for gate driver, and negative input terminal of operational amplifier connected to second terminal of first resistor; wherein connection between first capacitor and receiving terminal of gate drive independent from connection between output terminal of operational amplifier and receiving terminal of gate driver..
|Correlated double sampling circuit, method thereof and devices having the same|
A cds circuit includes first capacitors; second capacitors; and a switch arrangement which, in response to a switch control signal, connects the first capacitors in series between a pixel signal output node and a ground to compress the pixel signal and connects the second capacitors in series between a ramp signal output node and the ground to compress the ramp signal, or connects the first capacitors in parallel between the pixel signal output node and a first input node of the comparator and connects the second capacitors in parallel between the ramp signal output node and a second input node of the comparator.. .
|Pixel of an organic light emitting display device and organic light emitting display device|
A pixel of an organic light emitting display device includes a first capacitor, second capacitor, and a number of transistors. The first capacitor stores an emission data voltage from a data line.
|Pixel and organic light emitting display using the same|
A pixel circuit for an organic light emitting diode (oled) display is disclosed. One inventive aspect includes an organic light emitting diode, a first transistor, a second transistor, a first capacitor connected to a second node and a fixed voltage source, a third transistor, a fourth transistor, a second capacitor connected to the fourth transistor and a third node, a first control transistor and a second control transistor.
|Touch type input device and method for detecting touching of touch panel|
A touch type input device includes a touch panel having a sensor array of drive electrodes and sensor electrodes. Capacitors are formed at intersections of the drive electrodes and the sensor electrodes.
|Pixel and organic light emitting display using the same|
A pixel for an organic light emitting diode (oled) display is disclosed. One inventive aspect includes an organic light emitting diode, a first transistor, a first capacitor, a second transistor and a second capacitor.
|Clocked reference buffer in a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter|
A voltage reference circuit includes a capacitor including a first terminal and including a second terminal coupled to a power supply node. The voltage reference circuit further includes an amplifier, a first transistor, and a switch.
|Ultra-wideband assembly system and method|
An ultra-wideband assembly is provided. The assembly includes a non-conductive tapered core having a conductive wire wound on an outer surface of the non-conductive tapered core, a low-frequency inductor coupled to the non-conductive tapered core via the distal end of the conductive wire and configured to allow mounting of the non-conductive tapered core at an angle with respect to the circuit board.
|Dual-band semiconductor rf amplifier device|
There is described a dual-band semiconductor rf amplifier device. The device comprises (a) a transistor (205) having an output capacitance (co), (b) a first shunt element (210) arranged in parallel with the output capacitance, the first shunt element comprising a first shunt inductor (l1) connected in series with a first shunt capacitor (c1), and (c) a second shunt element (220) arranged in parallel with the first shunt capacitor, the second shunt element comprising a second shunt inductor (l2) connected in series with a second shunt capacitor (c2), wherein the capacitance of the second shunt capacitor (c2) is at least two times the capacitance of the first shunt capacitor (c1).
|Quadrature lattice matching network|
Embodiments include but are not limited to apparatuses and systems including a quadrature lattice matching network including first path having a series inductor and a shunt inductor, and a second path having a series capacitor and a shunt capacitor. Other embodiments may be described and claimed..
|Class ab differential line drivers|
An output stage of a differential line driver generates a differential output signal. A common-mode component of the differential output signal is decoupled from the differential output signal using a common-mode voltage sense.
|Circuit arrangement for generating a radio frequency signal|
A circuit arrangement for generating a radio frequency signal is described. The circuit arrangement comprises an rf output port, a shunt capacitor connected to the rf output port, at least two switch-mode amplifiers, each switch-mode amplifier comprising a switch-mode amplifier output port and a series inductive circuit element connected between the switch-mode amplifier output port and the rf output port..
|Universal filter implementing second-order transfer function|
An apparatus includes a biquad filter having first and second lossy integrators and multiple input networks. Each lossy integrator includes an amplifier, and each input network is coupled to an input of the amplifier in one of the lossy integrators.
An object is to prevent malfunction of a power device. In a semiconductor device for driving a power device for power supply, a buffer circuit and a level-shift circuit are configured by transistors having the same conductivity type.
|Testing of electronic devices through capacitive interface|
An embodiment of a test apparatus for executing a test of a set of electronic devices having a plurality of electrically conductive terminals, the test apparatus including a plurality of electrically conductive test probes for exchanging electrical signals with the terminals, and coupling means for mechanically coupling the test probes with the electronic devices. In an embodiment, the coupling means includes insulating means for keeping each one of at least part of the test probes electrically insulated from at least one corresponding terminal during the execution of the test.
|Ionization monitoring device and method|
An air ionization monitoring device 200 and method is disclosed herein. In a described embodiment, the air ionization monitoring device 200 comprises an ion source 202 adapted to emit ions 204 and a capacitor 208 including a first conductor 210 arranged to be exposed to the ions 204 emitted by the ion source 202, and a second conductor 212 arranged to be shielded from the ions 204 emitted by the ion source 202.
|Sensor and method of sensing a value of a parameter|
A sensor for sensing a parameter includes a capacitor, a switch and a comparator. The capacitor is configured to be charged or discharged by at least one of a first current signal or a second current signal.
|Insulation state detecting device|
An insulation state detecting device includes a positive side input terminal connected to a positive side power line of a high voltage dc power supply, a negative side input terminal connected to a negative side power line of the high voltage dc power supply, a ground electrode, a controller that detects insulation states between the positive side power line and the negative side power line and the ground electrode based on a charge voltage of a flying capacitor, and an equilibrium state forming circuit that promotes an operation of transiting a charge state of a positive side electrostatic capacitance between the positive side power line and the ground electrode and a charge state of a negative side electrostatic capacitance between the negative side power line and the ground electrode from non-equilibrium states to equilibrium states.. .
|Multiple channel nuclear magnetic resonance coil|
A multi-channel nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) coil operating at a resonance frequency includes a plurality of unit loops disposed upon a cylindrical surface of a coil body and surrounding the coil body as a closed nmr coil; and a plurality of inter-loop capacitors configured to connect adjacent unit loops respectively, wherein each unit loop comprises a signal channel and further comprises a pair of vertical conducting parts parallel to a cylindrical axis of the coil body, each vertical conducting part comprising an inductor and a first capacitor connected in serial; and a pair of horizontal conducting parts perpendicular to the cylindrical axis of the coil body, at least one horizontal conducting part comprising a second capacitor; and the inter-loop capacitor connects two respective horizontal conducting parts of adjacent unit loops disposed on a same side to eliminate coupling between signal channels of adjacent unit loops.. .
|System and method for improving response time of a braking unit|
A braking system includes a converter, a capacitor coupled to an output of the converter, a bridge coupled in parallel to the capacitor, and at least one inductor coupled to the bridge, an electrically conductive disc disposed proximate to the at least one inductor, and a switching unit controller for commanding the converter to convert a level of voltage supplied therefrom from a first voltage level to a second voltage level and thereby increase energy stored in the capacitor, and, upon receiving a brake command, commanding the bridge to ramp-up electrical current in the at least one inductor so as to induce an electromagnetic force on the electrically conductive disc.. .
|Protective circuitry for insulation damage due to failure of intermediate circuit capacitors|
The present disclosure relates to an intermediate circuit for an ec motor, comprising at least two similar series-connected capacitors for the connection of an electronic commutation device of an ec motor for nominal operation at a nominal voltage. In each case, a varistor is connected in parallel to each series-connected capacitor, wherein all the varistors are designed similarly.
|Device for recovering, storing and retrieving electricity for a handling door|
The device for recovering, storing and retrieving electricity from the decelerations of an electromechanical system such as a flexible curtain of a handling door is made up of a management interface (ig) connected to a frequency inverter (vf) and to a control logic board (cc) controlling the opening and closing of the flexible curtain of a handling door, the management interface (ig) including at least two power capacitors (c1, c2) connected to the grid via a first parallel branch, then connected to the grid during use of the energy by a serial connection in order to make it possible to store the energy from the decelerations and to retrieve the energy either during the following acceleration during opening of the flexible curtain or, in case of failure, to ensure sufficient opening of the flexible curtain of the handling door.. .
|Light emitting device and system|
Devices comprise first and second terminals (1,2) connected to first load circuits (21) comprising first light emitting diodes, and third and fourth terminals (3, 4) connected to second load circuits (22) comprising second light emitting diodes, first connections (11) that interconnect the first and third terminals (1, 3), second connections (12) that interconnect the second and fourth terminals (2, 4), at least one of the first and second connections (11, 12) being a power dissipating connection, at least one of the first and second load circuits (21, 22) being adapted to receive first power from a source (31) via the first and second connections (11, 12), and capacitors (41) coupled in parallel to the second load circuits (22) for storing energy received via elements (42) with current-direction-dependencies and for providing second power to at least the second load circuit (22).. .
|Led light unit and method of operating an led light unit|
An led light unit, in particular for a passenger transport vehicle, such as an aircraft, a road vehicle, a ship or a rail car, is disclosed that has at least one led and is configured to be used with a high intensity discharge lamp power supply that is adapted to monitor its output behavior. The led light unit comprises a power input coupleable to the high intensity discharge lamp power supply, a capacitor switchably coupled to the power input for absorbing electrical energy from the high intensity discharge lamp power supply, and a power dissipating element switchably coupled to the power input for dissipating electrical energy from the high intensity discharge lamp power supply..
|Pixel circuit and display device|
A pixel circuit able to prevent a spread of the terminal voltages of drive transistors inside a panel and in turn able to reliably prevent deterioration of uniformity, wherein a source of a tft serving as a drive transistor is connected to an anode of a light emitting element, a drain is connected to a power source potential, a capacitor is connected between a gate and source of the tft, and a source potential of the tft is connected to a fixed potential through a tft serving as a switch transistor and wherein pixel circuit lines are connected by an upper line and bottom line and are arranged in parallel with pixel circuit power source voltage lines so as not to have intersecting parts.. .
|Non-contact electric power transmission system|
Disclosed is a non-contact electric power transmission system including a power feeding unit provided with a power feeding side coil to which electric power is supplied, a power receiving unit provided with a power receiving side coil electromagnetically coupled with the power feeding side coil, and a capacitor connected in parallel with at least one of the power feeding side coil and the power receiving side coil, a capacity of which is varied such that a resonance frequency of the resonance circuit when the power feeding side coil and the power receiving side coil are critically coupled in a predetermined coil-to-coil distance between the power feeding side coil and the power receiving side coil, and a resonance frequency of the resonance circuit when the power feeding side coil and the power receiving side coil are over-coupled in a distance shorter than the coil-to-coil distance are conformed.. .
|Power transmitting apparatus and power transmitting method|
A power transmitting apparatus (100, 150) is provided with a first coil (105) and is configured to transmit electric power in a wireless manner to a second coil (204) disposed opposite to and at a distance from the first coil. The power transmitting apparatus is provided with: a first conversion circuit unit (103) configured to convert direct current voltage inputted to the power transmitting apparatus to alternating current voltage; a first capacitor unit (104) electrically connected in series with the first coil; a second capacitor unit (105) electrically connected in parallel with the first coil; and a control unit (120) configured to control electrical characteristics of the second capacitor unit on the basis of electrical characteristics of the first conversion circuit unit..
|Resonant coils for use with games and toys|
An electronic card game system and method using nfc or rfid electromagnetic communication, including an initiator having a driving coil, a first card having a secondary coil with a capacitor, and a playing piece having a receiving coil. The initiator and the first card may be placed on a playing surface so that at least a portion of the driving coil and at least a portion of the secondary coil overlap.
|Inline measurement of through-silicon via depth|
A through-silicon via (tsv) capacitive test structure and method of determining tsv depth based on capacitance is disclosed. The tsv capacitive test structure is formed from a plurality of tsv bars that are evenly spaced.
|Digital semiconductor variable capacitor|
A novel semiconductor variable capacitor is presented. The semiconductor structure is simple and is based on a semiconductor variable capacitor with mos compatible structure suitable for integrated circuits, which has at least three terminals, one of which is used to modulate the capacitance value between the other two terminals of the device, by increasing or decreasing its dc voltage with respect to one of the main terminals of the device.
|Fanout line structure ofarray substrate and display panel|
A fanout line structure of an array substrate includes a plurality of fanout lines arranged on a fanout area of the array substrate, where resistance value of the fanout line is dependent on length of the fanout line. Each of the fanout lines comprises a first conducting film.
|Semiconductor device and method for forming the same|
A semiconductor device includes a semiconductor substrate including a pad region and a peripheral region, a first buffer layer formed to include a capacitor over the semiconductor substrate in the pad region, a second buffer layer formed to include a first contact pad over the first buffer layer, and a third buffer layer formed to include a second contact pad over the first contact pad. The semiconductor device, by additionally forming a buffer layer at a lower part in the pad region, reduces a stress caused by wire bonding.
In a semiconductor device which conducts multilevel writing operation and a driving method thereof, a signal line for controlling on/off of a writing transistor for conducting a writing operation on a memory cell using a transistor including an oxide semiconductor layer is disposed along a bit line, and a multilevel writing operation is conducted with use of, also in a writing operation, a voltage which is applied to a capacitor at a reading operation. Because an oxide semiconductor material that is a wide gap semiconductor capable of sufficiently reducing off-state current of a transistor is used, data can be held for a long period..
|Pixel circuit and display apparatus using the same|
A pixel circuit includes one organic light emitting diode, five first transistors and two capacitors. The first and third transistors have terminals coupled to a first voltage.
|Organic light emitting diode display|
An organic light emitting diode (oled) display is provided. The oled displayer includes a capacitor electrode disposed on a substrate.
|Organic light emitting diode display|
A display includes a switching transistor connected to a scan line and data line, a driving transistor connected to the switching transistor, a storage capacitor between a voltage line and the driving transistor, and an organic light emitting diode connected to the driving transistor. The data line and voltage line are at different layers, and the data line and a gate electrode of the driving transistor are at different layers.
|Single crystal high dielectric constant material and method for making same|
The invention provides a stable oxide material system for a capacitor, electronic device or a memory device having an effective high-k value with an effective zero alpha while exhibiting low leakage current density. The stable oxide material comprises mx-si1-xo2, wherein the elements m & si are mixed such that the insulator layer comprises staggered edge-linked sio2-mo2 bonding chains to provide a stable 3-dimensional single crystal system..
|Wireless kitchen appliance operated on induction heating cooker|
The present invention relates to a kitchen appliance (1) suitable for being wirelessly operated on an induction heating cooker (k), comprising a programmable microcontroller (2), one or more than one electronic circuit (3) that provides the microcontroller (2) to control the communication means, user interface and sensors, providing communication with the induction heating cooker (k) whereon the kitchen appliance (1) is operated, a power control circuitry (4) that supplies the microcontroller (2) and the electronic circuits (3) with low level dc voltage, a rectifier (5) that converts the ac voltage to dc voltage and a buffer capacitor (6) which filters the dc voltage at the rectifier (5) outlet.. .
|Assembly for feeding in hf current for tubular cathodes|
An arrangement is provided for feeding in hf current for rotatable tubular cathodes in a vacuum chamber of a plasma coating system as well as a high frequency current source. Located inside the tubular cathode is a magnet arrangement that extends along said tubular cathode for generating a magnetic field.
|Capacitor element mounting structure and capacitor element mounting method|
A circuit board includes a wiring board on which is mounted first and second laminated ceramic capacitors near or adjacent to each other, arranged along a direction parallel or substantially parallel to a main surface of the wiring board, and electrically connected in series or in parallel via a conductive pattern provided on the wiring board. One width direction side surface of the first laminated ceramic capacitor and one length direction end surface of the second laminated ceramic capacitor oppose each other perpendicularly or approximately perpendicularly..
There is provided a displacement sensor which can precisely detect the amount of displacement given by an operator. A touch sensor which is a type of the displacement sensor has a piezoelectric element, a voltage converting unit and a detecting unit.
An industrial machine includes a power converter. The power converter includes: at least one power module; a capacitor; and a bus bar provided between any two among a load to be driven, the power module, and the capacitor.
|Techniques to determine settings for an electrical distribution network|
Techniques to determine settings for an electrical distribution network are described. Some embodiments are particularly directed to techniques to determine settings for an electrical distribution network using power flow heuristics.
|Electronic device with multiple antenna feeds and adjustable filter and matching circuitry|
Electronic devices may include antenna structures. The antenna structures may form an antenna having first and second feeds at different locations.
|Electric vehicle running control system|
An electric vehicle running control system is provided. The electric vehicle running control system comprises a heating circuit coupled with an in-vehicle battery and configured to heat the in-vehicle battery.