|| List of recent Cadmium-related patents
|Reflective optical limiter|
An optical limiter comprises a glass backing, a glass cover, and a layer of a phase changing material placed between said glass backing and said glass cover, the phase changing material comprising a transparent matrix having embedded particles of material that changes its optical properties due to temperature induced phase change of said material. The optical properties may change from transparent to reflective, from transparent to refractive or from transparent to scattering.
|Composite materials including inorganic fullerene-like particles and inorganic tubular-like particles in a polymer matrix|
A composite including a dispersed phase of an inorganic material of a metal chalcogenide composition with a fullerene-like or tubular-like geometry that is present in a polymeric matrix, wherein the inorganic material of the metal chalcogenide has a molecular formula mx2, where m is a metallic element selected from the group consisting of titanium (ti), vanadium (v), chromium (cr), manganese (mn), iron (fe), cobalt (co), nickel (ni), copper (cu), zinc (zn), zirconium (zr), niobium (nb), molybdenum (mo), technetium (tc), ruthenium (ru), rhodium (rh), palladium (pd), silver (ag), cadmium (cd), hafnium (hf), tantalum (ta), tungsten (w), rhenium (re), osmium (os), iridium (ir), platinum (pt), gold (au), mercury (hg) and combinations thereof, and x is a chalcogen element selected from the group consisting of sulfur (5), selenium (se), tellurium (te), oxygen (o) and combinations thereof.. .
|Methods of making photovoltaic devices|
A method of making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes disposing an absorber layer on a window layer.
|Method and apparatus for detecting cadmium with optical emission spectroscopy|
An apparatus and method for detecting cadmium using optical emission spectroscopy is provided. The apparatus contains a system which uses optical emission spectroscopy which is programmed and calibrated to detect the presence of cadmium in ppm.
|Portable wireless charger|
The invention relates to a portable wireless charger, particularly to the secondary batteries of the nickel-hydrogen batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries having the parallel-connected separated detection charging mode and series-connected combined discharging mode to achieve highest efficiency of power release. The present invention also provide a dc to ac output control unit coupled with the power storing unit and converting a discharging current into an output power with a predetermined voltage level and a wireless power transmitter having stable high efficiency of the output power.
|Avalanche photodiode-type semiconductor structure with low response time and process for producing such a structure|
The invention relates to an avalanche photodiode-type semiconductor structure (1) intended to receive electromagnetic radiation in a given wavelength. The structure comprises a first semiconductor zone (210) with a first type of conductivity with a first longitudinal face (201), said first zone (210) being made of mercury-cadmium telluride of the cdxhg1-xte type with a cadmium proportion x that is varied.
|Methods of fabricating a photovoltaic module, and related system|
A method of processing a semiconductor assembly is presented. The method includes fabricating a photovoltaic module including a semiconductor assembly.
|Minority carrier based hgcdte infrared detectors and arrays|
Disclosed are minority carrier based mercury-cadmium telluride (hgcdte) infrared detectors and arrays, and methods of making, are disclosed. The constructions provided by the invention enable the detectors to be used at higher temperatures, and/or be implemented on less expensive semiconductor substrates to lower manufacturing costs.
|Radiation shields and methods of making the same|
Various non-limiting embodiments disclosed herein generally relate to metallurgically dense radiation shields formed from bismuth alloys comprising from 10 weight percent to 60 weight percent tin that are essentially free of toxic heavy metals chosen from lead, cadmium, and uranium; and radiation attenuation devices comprising the same. Other non-limiting embodiments disclosed herein relate to methods of making metallurgically dense radiation shields comprising bismuth alloys comprising from 10 weight percent to 60 weight percent tin.
|Methods of annealing a conductive transparent oxide film layer for use in a thin film photovoltaic device|
Methods are generally provided for forming a conductive oxide layer on a substrate by sputtering a target to deposit a transparent conductive oxide layer (e.g., comprising comprises cadmium, tin, and oxygen) on the substrate; positioning an anneal surface in close proximity to the transparent conductive oxide layer (e.g., about 3 cm or less); and, annealing the transparent conductive oxide layer while the anneal surface is in close proximity to the transparent conductive oxide layer (e.g., at an anneal temperature of about 500° c. To about 700° c.) to create a localized cadmium vapor between the transparent conductive oxide layer and the anneal surface.
|Composition, energy storage device, and related process|
A positive electrode composition is provided. The positive electrode composition includes at least one electroactive metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, nickel, iron, cobalt, chromium, manganese, silver, antimony, cadmium, tin, lead, copper, zinc, and combination thereof, an alkali metal halide, and aluminum, present in an amount of at least 0.5 weight percent, based on the weight of the positive electrode composition.
|Spatially distributed cds in thin film photovoltaic devices and their methods of manufacture|
Thin film photovoltaic devices are provided. The device includes a transparent substrate; a transparent conductive oxide layer on the transparent substrate; an n-type window layer on the transparent conductive oxide layer, an absorber layer on the n-type window layer, and a back contact layer on the absorber layer.
|System and method for depositing a material on a substrate|
A method and apparatus for depositing a film on a substrate includes introducing a material and a carrier gas into a heated chamber. The material may be a semiconductor material, such as a cadmium chalcogenide.
|Manufacturing apparatus and method for large-scale production of thin-film solar cells|
A method of manufacturing improved thin-film solar cells entirely by sputtering includes a high efficiency back contact/reflecting multi-layer containing at least one barrier layer consisting of a transition metal nitride. A copper indium gallium diselenide (cu(inxga1-x)se2) absorber layer (x ranging from 1 to approximately 0.7) is co-sputtered from specially prepared electrically conductive targets using dual cylindrical rotary magnetron technology.
|Alkali silicate glass based coating and method for applying|
A coating for reducing interaction between a surface and the environment around the surface includes an alkali silicate glass material configured to protect the surface from environmental corrosion due to water or moisture. The alkali silicate glass material is doped with a first element to affect various forms of radiation passing through the coating.
|Process for the electrochemical preparation of gamma-hydroxycarboxylic esters and gamma-lactones|
γ-hydroxycarboxylic esters and γ-lactones which are suitable as flavors can be prepared by electrochemical reductive cross-coupling of α,β-unsaturated esters with carbonyl compounds in an undivided electrolysis cell having a cathode composed of lead, lead alloys, cadmium, cadmium alloys, mercury, steel, glassy carbon or boron-doped diamonds and a basic aqueous electrolyte comprising an electrolyte salt which suppresses the cathodic formation of hydrogen.. .
|Hybrid multi-junction photovoltaic cells and associated methods|
A multi-junction photovoltaic cell includes a substrate and a back contact layer formed on the substrate. A low bandgap group ib-iiib-vib2 material solar absorber layer is formed on the back contact layer.
|Varying cadmium telluride growth temperature during deposition to increase solar cell reliability|
A method for forming thin films or layers of cadmium telluride (cdte) for use in photovoltaic modules or solar cells. The method includes varying the substrate temperature during the growth of the cdte layer by preheating a substrate (e.g., a substrate with a cadmium sulfide (cds) heterojunction or layer) suspended over a cdte source to remove moisture to a relatively low preheat temperature.
|Method of controlling the amount of cu doping when forming a back contact of a photovoltaic cell|
Methods for preparing an exposed surface of a p-type absorber layer of a p-n junction for coupling to a back contact in the manufacture of a thin film photovoltaic device are provided. The method can include: applying a treatment solution onto the exposed surface defined by the p-type absorber layer of cadmium telluride; and annealing the device with the p-type absorber layer in contact with the treatment solution to form a tellurium-enriched region in the p-type absorber layer at the exposed surface.
|Use of an inert graphite layer in a back contact of a photovoltaic cell|
Photovoltaic devices are provided that include a transparent superstrate; a transparent conductive oxide on the transparent superstrate; an n-type window layer on the transparent superstrate; a p-type absorber layer on the n-type window layer; and an inert conductive paste layer on the back surface of the p-type absorber layer. The p-type absorber layer includes cadmium telluride, and defines a back surface positioned opposite from the n-type window layer that is tellurium enriched.
|Back contact paste with te enrichment control in thin film photovoltaic devices|
Methods for forming a back contact on a thin film photovoltaic device are provided. The method can include: applying a conductive paste onto a surface defined by a p-type absorber layer (of cadmium telluride) of a p-n junction; and, curing the conductive paste to form a conductive coating on the surface such that during curing an acid from the conductive paste reacts to enrich the surface with tellurium but is substantially consumed during curing.
|Photovoltaic back contact|
A method to preparing cadmium telluride surface before forming metal back contact is disclosed. The method can include removing carbon from cadmium telluride surface..
|Corrosion protection formulation for protection against zinc and cadmium corrosion|
Corrosion protection formulation comprising (a) from 0.01 to 5% by weight of alkylamine ethoxylates as surfactant component, (b) from 0.01 to 10% by weight of corrosion inhibitors, (c) from 0 to 0.3% by weight of thickeners, (d) from 5 to <75% by weight of freezing point-lowering alcohols selected from among alkanols, glycols, polyalkylene glycols and glycerol, (e) from 5 to 90% by weight of vegetable and/or fatty oils, (f) from 0 to 5% by weight of water and (g) from 0 to 5% by weight of conventional emulsifiers. The formulation is particularly suitable for protecting zinc or zinc-plated components or surfaces or cadmium or cadmium-plated metallic surfaces against corrosion caused by runway deicing compositions used at airports..
|Intentionally-doped cadmium oxide layer for solar cells|
A method and structure for a solar cell forms and utilizes a low resistivity and high transmission semiconductor in a top and/or bottom layer (e.g., a top or bottom contact). Some embodiments relate to solar cells having a top or bottom transparent contact layer comprising doped cadmium oxide (cdo) or alloys of cdo..
|Algal biomass fibers laden with metal for consumer product applications|
The present invention also relates to substrates such as a nonwoven comprising an algal biomass fiber material comprising at least one metal ion selected from the group consisting of copper, iron, manganese, potassium, silver, nickel, zinc, cadmium and combinations thereof, wherein said metal-laden algal biomass fiber is present in an amount of from about 1% to about 30%, by weight of the substrate.. .
|Method of making a multicomponent film|
Described herein is a method and liquid-based precursor composition for depositing a multicomponent film. In one embodiment, the method and compositions described herein are used to deposit germanium tellurium (gete), antimony tellurium (sbte), antimony germanium (sbge), germanium antimony tellurium (gst), indium antimony tellurium (ist), silver indium antimony tellurium (aist), cadmium telluride (cdte), cadmium selenide (cdse), zinc telluride (znte), zinc selenide (znse), copper indium gallium selenide (cigs) films or other tellurium and selenium based metal compounds for phase change memory and photovoltaic devices..
|Lead alkaline battery|
A rechargeable battery is provided such that the positive electrode comprises lead dioxide, the negative electrode comprises a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, zinc, cadmium, lanthanum/nickel alloys and titanium/zirconium alloys, and the electrolyte is an aqueous alkali-metal acetate. Upon discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide, and the electrolyte remains unchanged.
|System and process for making formic acid|
Methods and systems for electrochemical production of formic acid are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (a) to (d).
|Laser annealing for thin film solar cells|
A method for forming copper indium gallium (sulfide) selenide (cigs) solar cells, cadmium telluride (cdte) solar cells, and copper zinc tin (sulfide) selenide (czts) solar cells using laser annealing techniques to anneal the absorber and/or the buffer layers. Laser annealing may result in better crystallinity, lower surface roughness, larger grain size, better compositional homogeneity, a decrease in recombination centers, and increased densification.
|Manufacturing methods for semiconductor devices|
Embodiments of the present invention include a method. The method includes heating a layer stack.
|Back contact electrodes for cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells|
A method for forming a back contact for a photovoltaic cell that includes at least one semiconductor layer is provided. The method includes applying a continuous film of a chemically active material on a surface of the semiconductor layer and activating the chemically active material such that the activated material etches the surface of the semiconductor layer.
|Microwave induced visible luminescence|
An indicator device for detecting high-power microwave radiation is provided, including an electrically-insulating substrate; an electrically-conductive portion disposed on the substrate; and an electroluminescence material disposed on the portion. The electroluminescence material can be zinc-cadmium-sulfide ((zncd)s) crystal doped with manganese (mn) and aluminum (al) as (zncd)s:mn2+,al3+, zinc sulfide (zns) crystal doped with manganese (mn) as zns:mn2+, calcium sulfide (cas) doped with europium (eu) as cas:eu2+, or strontium aluminate (sral2o4) doped with europium and dysprosium as (sral2o4):eu2+,dy3+..
|Method of processing a semiconductor assembly|
A method for processing a semiconductor assembly is presented. The method includes thermally processing a semiconductor assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a pressure greater than about 10 torr.
|Method of providing chloride treatment for a photovoltaic device and a chloride treated photovoltaic device|
A method of manufacturing a photovoltaic device including depositing a cadmium telluride layer onto a substrate; treating the cadmium telluride layer with a compound comprising chlorine and an element from groups 1-11, zinc, mercury, or copernicium or a combination thereof; and annealing the cadmium telluride layer. A chloride-treated photovoltaic device..
|Synthesis of highly fluorescent gsh-cdte nanoparticles (quantum dots)|
The invention relates to a method for the synthesis of glutathione-capped cadmium-telluride (gsh-cdte) quantum dots in an aqueous medium, including the steps of: a) preparing a precursor solution of cadmium in a citrate buffer; b) adding glutathione (gsh) to the preceding mixture via strong agitation; c) adding a telluride (potassium or sodium telluride) oxyanion as a telluride donor to the preceding mixture; d) allowing the preceding mixture to react; and e) stopping the reaction by incubation at low temperature.. .
|Method and system for performance testing touch-sensitive devices|
A method and apparatus for testing a capacitive touch screen of a touch panel as commonly implemented on mobile and other electronic devices (or another touch-sensing device) are disclosed herein. In at least some embodiments, the method involves placing the touch screen in relation to a photoconductive panel (for example, a panel made from cadmium sulfide) so that the device and panel are adjacent to one another.
|Ultrathin nanowire-based and nanoscale heterostructure-based thermoelectric conversion structures and method of making same|
A nanoscale heterostructure tellurium-based nanowire structure, including a rod-like tellurium nanowire structure and a metal telluride agglomeration connected to the rod-like nanowire structure. The metal telluride agglomeration may have an octahedral shape or a platelet shape.
|Photoelectric conversion device and solar cell having the same|
The photoelectric conversion device of the present invention is a photoelectric conversion device which includes a substrate on which the following are layered in the order listed below: a lower electrode layer; a photoelectric conversion semiconductor layer which includes, as a major component, at least one kind of compound semiconductor having a chalcopyrite structure formed of a group ib element, a group iiib element, and a group vib element; a buffer layer; and a transparent conductive layer, in which a carbonyl ion is provided on a surface of the buffer layer on the side of the transparent conductive layer and the buffer layer is a thin film layer having an average film thickness of 10 nm to 70 nm and includes a ternary compound of a cadmium-free metal, oxygen, and sulfur.. .
|Method and reactor for cracking hydrocarbon and method for coating the reactor|
A reactor has an inner surface accessible to the hydrocarbon and comprising a sintered product of at least one of cerium oxide, zinc oxide, tin oxide, zirconium oxide, boehmite and silicon dioxide, and a perovskite material of formula aabbccddo3-δ. 0<a<1.2, 0≦b≦1.2, 0.9<a+b≦1.2, 0<c<1.2, 0≦d≦1.2, 0.9<c+d≦1.2, −0.5<δ<0.5.
|Positive electrode material and positive electrode for nickel-zinc secondary battery and method for manufacturing positive electrode|
The present invention provides a positive electrode material for a nickel-zinc secondary battery, a positive electrode for a nickel-zinc secondary battery and a method for preparing the positive electrode. The positive electrode material for a nickel-zinc secondary battery provided by the present invention includes: 68 wt %˜69 wt % positive electrode active material, 0.6 wt %˜1 wt % yttrium oxide, 0.2 wt %˜0.6 wt % calcium hydroxide, 3.5 wt %˜4 wt % nickel powder, and a binder in balance; the positive electrode active material being a spherical nickel hydroxide coated with co (iii).
|Monolithically integrated solar modules and methods of manufacture|
A monolithically integrated cadmium telluride (cdte) photovoltaic (pv) module includes a first electrically conductive layer and an insulating layer. The first electrically conductive layer is disposed below the insulating layer.
|Method and apparatus for forming a transparent conductive oxide using hydrogen|
A method and apparatus for forming a crystalline cadmium stannate layer of a photovoltaic device by heating an amorphous layer in the presence of hydrogen gas.. .
|Doping an absorber layer of a photovoltaic device via diffusion from a window layer|
Methods for doping an absorbent layer of a p-n heterojunction in a thin film photovoltaic device are provided. The method can include depositing a window layer on a transparent substrate, where the window layer includes at least one dopant (e.g., copper).
|Composition for phytochelatin transport|
A composition for transportation of phytochelatin including two dna molecule encoding two members of abcc (multidrug resistance-associated protein (mrp)) subfamily of atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter protein in a plant is provided. The composition for transportation of phytochelatin can be useful in accumulating and sequestering phytochelatin alone or in combination with a harmful substance by transporting the phytochelatin and/or harmful substance into the vacuole of a cell, thereby reducing a content of the toxic substance from cytosol, and also reducing it from translocation from the root to the shoot of a plant.
|Salts of 5-sulfoisophthalic acid and method of making same|
This invention relates to methods for the production of various metal salts of 5-sulfoisophthalic acid including those where the metal cation is selected from the group consisting of silver (i), sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, manganese (ii), iron (ii), cobalt (ii), nickel (ii), copper (i), copper (ii), zinc, yttrium, and cadmium. The methods utilize a solvent system that comprises acetic acid or water or a mixture of both.
|Transgenic plants modified for reduced cadmium transport, derivative products, and related methods|
Various embodiments are directed to transgenic plants, including transgenic tobacco plants and derivative seeds, genetically modified to impede the transport of cadmium (cd) from the root system to aerial portions of transgenic plants by reducing the expression levels of hma-related transporters. Various embodiments are directed to transgenic tobacco plants genetically modified to stably express a rnai construct encoding rnai polynucleotides that enable the degradation of endogenous nthma rna variants.
|Methods of producing cadmium selenide multi-pod nanocrystals|
A detecting device for assembly position of vehicle body side walls includes a first detecting device for location surface of front position and/or a second detecting device for location surface of reverse position. The first detecting device includes two first rules (22) and a front detecting sample (21), of which the top surface (27) is flat, and the lower surface (26) is a measuring surface.
|Photovoltaic device having an absorber multilayer and method of manufacturing the same|
A photovoltaic device having an absorber multilayer and methods of manufacturing the same are described. The absorber multilayer, which is formed adjacent to a window layer, may include a doped first cadmium telluride layer which contains a first dopant and an intrinsic second cadmium telluride layer.
|Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells|
A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a cdte/back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer.