|| List of recent Anaerobic-related patents
|Three stage, multiple phase anaerobic digestion system and method|
A three stage, multiple phase anaerobic digestion system and method designed to separate the biological phases, optimize microbial activity in each phase, and significantly increase system reliability and energy production. The system physically separates the biological phases of anaerobic digestion based on particle size, particle density, and solubility of metabolic products.
|Nutrient recovery systems and methods|
Methods, systems, and apparatuses for anaerobic digestion of waste fibrous material and the recovery of nutrients are provided. Methods, systems, and apparatuses disclosed herein provide mechanisms to release dissolved gases from anaerobic digester effluent.
|Use of encapsulated substrates that controlthe release rates of organic hydrogen donors|
Anaerobic reductive dechlorination processes remove chlorinated solvents from contaminated subsurface soil and ground water. The presence of organic hydrogen donors enables anaerobic microorganisms present in the subsurface soil and groundwater to accelerate the reductive dechlorination process.
|Rotating drum micro-screen for primary wastewater treatment|
A rotating screen has one or more panels arranged into a cylinder, or drum. The panels have openings in a micro-screening range, for example 100 microns or less.
|Pressurised recirculation of organic material|
An apparatus (10) for the pressurised recirculation of organic material comprising a reactor vessel (12) capable of being pressurised and in which both anaerobic digestion and aerobic composting of organic material may occur, the reactor vessel (12) having both an inlet (14) and an outlet (16) for organic material, together with a conveyor means (18, 20, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34 and 36) to convey organic material to the inlet (14) and from the outlet (16), whereby organic material may be transferred between the outlet (16) and the inlet (14) to achieve recirculation and rearrangement thereof whilst maintaining a pressurised state. A method for the pressurised recirculation of organic material is also described..
|Anaerobic digestion system|
An anaerobic digestion system for digestion of animal or other organic material and production of biogas is shown. The digestion system includes a simplified construction and improved agitation system both partially enabled by a dual container system that makes use of the buoyancy of the digestion container for support..
|Method and installation for treating wastewater containing ammonia|
A method and installation for treating wastewater containing ammonia includes feeding activated sludge from an aeration tank into a hydrocyclone. The sludge is separated into a specifically heavy fraction containing mostly anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox) and a specifically light fraction containing mostly aerobic oxidizing bacteria (aob), which are returned to the aeration tank.
|System and method for treating wastewater and resulting sludge|
A wastewater treatment process that produces primary sludge and biological sludge. The system and process hydrolyzes the biological sludge in a hydrolysis reactor.
|Anaerobic treatment system and anaerobic treatment method|
Provided is an anaerobic treatment system including an anaerobic treatment tank that anaerobically treats organic waste water by sludge which is acclimated to a low temperature condition, a state evaluation unit that evaluates a state of the organic waste water with respect to the anaerobic treatment tank, and a heating unit that heats the organic waste water which flows into the anaerobic treatment tank, in which when the state evaluation unit determines that heating is necessary, a temperature of the organic waste water is increased by the heating unit.. .
|Enhanced ethanol fermentation using biodigestate|
Methods and systems for enhancing ethanol production using a suspending fluid are described. The suspending fluid includes organic material that has at least partially been anaerobically digested and anaerobic microorganisms, and is substantially free of non-anaerobic microorganisms.
Disclosed is an improved water treatment cavitation reactor cone. The tank operates on a continuous flow of fluids which are subjected to ultrasonic waves in combination with a high level of injected ozone.
|Multi-layer barrier film and use thereof|
A multi-layer barrier film made of a plastic material adapted for covering and/or wrapping natural products used both for animal feeding and as raw materials for plants producing energy from renewable sources, particularly ensiled agricultural vegetable products such as chopped fodder or the like, includes at least one barrier layer made of an air-impermeable, and particularly oxygen-impermeable, plastic material for preventing aerobic fermentation of the ensiled product or for limiting it to the lactic fermentation caused by anaerobic microorganisms. The film has an oxygen permeability value, measured at 0% humidity and at 20° c., not higher than 300 cc/m2/day/atm in the stretched or not stretched condition, with an overall thickness not higher than 500 μm..
|Method for the simultaneous production of ethanol and a fermented, solid product|
The invention relates to a method for the simultaneous production of a fermented, solid product and ethanol comprising the following steps: 1) providing a mixture of milled or flaked or otherwise disintegrated biomass, comprising oligosaccharides and/or polysaccharides and live yeast in a dry matter ratio of from 2:1 to 100:1, and water; 2) fermenting the mixture resulting from step (1) under conditions where the water content in the initial mixture does not exceed 65% by weight, for 1-36 hours at a temperature of about 25-60° c. Under anaerobic conditions; 3) incubating the fermented mixture resulting from step (2) for 0.5-240 minutes at a temperature of about 70-150° c.; and 4) separating wet fermented, solid product from the fermented mixture resulting from step (3); further comprising either a) that the fermentation in step (2) is performed in one or more interconnected paddle worm or continuous worm conveyers with inlet means for the fermentation mixture and additives and outlet means for the ferment as well as control means for rotation speed, temperature and ph, or b) that one or more processing aids are added in any of steps (1), (2) and (3) and further comprising a step of 5) separating crude ethanol from the fermented mixture in step (2) by vacuum and/or in step (3) by vacuum or by injection of steam and condensing the surplus stripping steam.
|Heat and moisture resistant anaerobic adhesives and sealants|
Anaerobic adhesive compositions have been developed that are very thermally stable, and are also extremely hydrophobic to allow for formulations that can withstand extreme harsh temperature, pressure and moisture environments.. .
|System and method for producing a consistent quality syngas from diverse waste materials with heat recovery based power generation, and renewable hydrogen co-production|
A system and method for converting waste and secondary materials into synthesis gas (syngas) through the use of a molten metal bath gasifier for the initial breakdown of waste feeds and an a/c plasma reactor for complete dissociation of waste feeds into syngas, and an anaerobic digester. The system includes a heat recovery and steam power generation process for the production of electricity.
|Digester assembly for providing renewable resources and associated systems, apparatuses, and methods|
A renewable energy system includes a digester assembly having an outer tube with an input region and a digestion region. The input region extends above grade and is configured to receive liquid waste.
|Processes for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to oxygenated organic compound with in situ protection from hydrogen cyanide|
Processes are disclosed for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to oxygenated organic compound that use an in situ method for protecting the microorganisms from hydrogen cyanide contained in the syngas that passes to the fermentation broth. The fermentation broth is maintained at a ph of between about 4 and 6, and dissolved metal cation of one or more of iron, cobalt, nickel and zinc is provided to the fermentation broth in an amount sufficient to form, under the conditions of the fermentation broth, a substantially insoluble metal complex with the metal cation and cyanide anion.
|Method for production of n-propanol and other c3-carbon containing products from syngas by symbiotic arrangement of c1-fixing and c3-producing anaerobic microorganism cultures|
This invention provides methods and systems for the production of propanol. Specifically, the methods and systems of the present invention use symbiotic arrangement of anaerobic microorganism cultures for the production of propanol from syngas..
|Method for production of n-propanol and other c3-containing products from syngas by symbiotic co-cultures of anaerobic microorganisms|
This invention provides methods and systems for the production of propanol. Specifically, the methods and systems of the present invention use symbiotic co-cultures for the production of propanol from syngas..
|System and method for controlling metabolite production in a microbial fermentation|
A method is provided for controlling a metabolic profile of an anaerobic microbial fermentation culture. In particular, a metabolic profile of a fermentation process is controlled by controlling the amount of dissolved co2 provided to a culture.
|Sulfur management for processes and control systems for the efficient anaerobic conersion of hydrogen and carbon oxides to alcohols|
High conversion efficiency processes are disclosed for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to alcohol by microorganisms having metabolic processes that utilize sulfur in limited amounts. The processes remove hydrogen sulfide from the gas leaving the bioreactor assembly by forming sulfur compounds that are beneficial to the microorganisms.
|Biodegradable pvc film for pharmaceutical packaging and process for its preparation|
A process for preparing a bio-degradable pvc based pharmaceutical grade thermo-formable film. The film is stable in aerobic conditions and is bio-degradable under anaerobic conditions.
|Antimicrobial compositions for use in products for petroleum extraction, personal care, wound care and other applications|
Compositions having antimicrobial activity contain surface functionalized particles comprising an inorganic copper salt which has low water solubility. These types of inorganic salts may also be introduced in porous particles to yield antimicrobial compositions.
|Systems and methods for anaerobic digestion of biomaterials|
A batch reactor includes a first portion, a second portion, a first drainage tank, a second drainage tank, and a first flow control mechanism. The first portion includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a third chamber in fluid communication with one another configured for a flow of at least one biomaterial therethrough.
|Hybrid aerobic and anaerobic wastewater and sludge treatment systems and methods|
A hybrid method and system of treating wastewater with reduced energy usage is disclosed. The treatment system has a sorption system, an anaerobic digester that digests or converts at least a portion of the solids or sludge from the sorption system, and an aerobic treatment tank that partially reduces oxygen demand of a portion of the sludge from the sorption tank..
|Lignocellulosic fibrous composites and associated methods for preparing the same|
A lignocellulosic fibrous composite having one or more solvents and a dried lignocellulosic fiber, wherein the dried lignocellulosic fiber has been processed by ruminant digestion and anaerobic digestion. A method for preparing a lignocellulosic fibrous composite is also disclosed including the steps of providing excrement from an animal which has undergone ruminant digestion, introducing the cow excrement into an anaerobic digester, modifying the cow excrement to a first wet product, and drying the first wet product to, in turn, generate a lignocellulosic fibrous composite..
|Anaerobic curable compositions|
The invention provides anaerobic curable compositions, and methods of their production and use. These compositions provide excellent adhesion especially on oily surfaces..
|Regenerative intensifier and associated systems and methods|
Regenerative intensifier systems that can receive fluids from landfills, anaerobic digesters, wastewater treatment plants, animal waste lagoons, swamp gas, decaying permafrost, and oceanic clathrate decomposition interchangeably with natural gas and other available fuels and substances and provide suitably conditioned fuel for operation of an engine, fuel cell, or other industrial and/or chemical processes. Alternatively, gases collected from landfills, waste digesters, bakeries, breweries, ethanol plants, calciners, power plant stacks, electrolyzers, and/or natural gas that may be delivered at relatively low pressures can be converted to high pressure and/or high purity constituents to enable efficient utilization as a transportation fuel and/or industrial feedstock or chemical plant reactant..
|Animal bedding and associated method for preparing the same|
Animal bedding having one or more solvents and a lignocellulosic fiber, wherein the lignocellulosic fiber has been processed by ruminant digestion and anaerobic digestion. A method for preparing pelletized animal bedding is also disclosed including the steps of providing excrement from a cow which has undergone ruminant digestion, introducing the cow excrement into an anaerobic digester, modifying the cow excrement to a first wet product, drying the first wet product to generate a first dry product, and densifying the first dry product to, in turn, generate pelletized animal bedding..
|Composition comprising anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota|
The invention relates to an anaerobic micro-ecological system, a composition comprising anaerobically cultivated human intestinal microbiota for the treatment or prophylaxis of diseases, and wherein the microbiota in the composition have not been exposed to antibiotics used after 1995. The present invention further relates to the use of the composition for the prevention and treatment of disease and a method for preparing the composition..
The present invention relates to improving the results of anaerobic digestion of organic waste especially animal manure such as chicken manure by removing the grit in the waste. By digesting the waste in a slurry at a temperature of 50 degrees c.
|Energy efficient system and process for treating sludge|
Apparatus and process is provided for hydrolyzing sludge from water treatment and for conditioning the hydrolyzed sludge for optimal anaerobic digestion. Methods provided include dewatering to produce dewatered sludge, hydrolyzing the dewatered sludge in a steam fed process, preheating the dewatered sludge before hydrolysis with sludge-to-sludge heat transfer, and cooling and diluting the sludge using sludge-to-water heat transfer and water injection, and anaerobically digesting the hydrolyzed sludge.
|Inhibition of methane production during anaerobic reductive dechlorination|
This method of restricting methane production in methanogenic bacteria, by the use of the enzyme and coenzyme inhibitors, works during anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Various compounds such as, but not limited to, red yeast rice, vitamin b10 derivatives, and ethanesulfonates are utilized to disrupt these different enzyme and coenzyme systems responsible for the production of methane.
|Secondary solid-phase anaerobic digestion producing more biogas|
The present invention relates to a method for taking liquid anaerobic digestion effluent and increasing the solids content by using the effluent and biomass to further digest both.. .
|Wastewater treatment process and system|
A process and system for treating wastewater is described. The invention degrades sludge produced by treatment of the wastewater to reduce or eliminate the need for sludge dewatering and disposal.
|Process control method|
A process control method, the method comprising the steps of: (i) passing a portion of a biomass containing liquid from a first reactor (12) in which a batch anaerobic digestion of organic material is being or has been conducted to a liquid storage vessel (14), methane being produced in both the first reactor (12) and the liquid storage vessel (14); (ii) passing a portion of the liquid from the liquid storage vessel (14) back to a first reactor (12) that may or may not be the same reactor (12) of step (i); (iii) passing a portion of the liquid from either or both of the first reactor (12) and the liquid storage vessel (14) to a second reactor (16); and (iv) passing a portion of the liquid from the second reactor (16) to either the liquid storage vessel (14) or to the first reactor (12), wherein the direction of liquid to the second reactor (16) allows control of the level of volatile fatty acids (vfa) in the liquid to be returned to the first reactor (12) by way of exposure to additional anaerobic methanogenic microorganisms provided in that second reactor (16). An apparatus (10) for the control of process conditions in a process for the microbiological digestion of organic waste material is also disclosed..
|Method for producing renewable fuels|
According to the present invention, organic material is converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion and the biogas is purified to yield a combustible fluid feedstock comprising methane. A fuel production facility utilizes or arranges to utilize combustible fluid feedstock to generate renewable hydrogen that is used to hydrogenate crude oil derived hydrocarbons in a process to make transportation or heating fuel.
|Butyrate producing clostridium species, clostridium pharus|
A clostridia bacterial species clostridium pharus, is provided. Under anaerobic conditions clostridium pharus can convert ethanol and/or acetate to butyric acid..
|Recombinant anaerobic acetogenic bacteria for production of isoprene and/or industrial bio-products using synthesis gas|
This invention provides for recombinant anaerobic acetogenic bacterial cells having one or more nucleic acids whereby isoprene, mevalonate and/or other industrial bio-products are produced in a substantially oxygen-free culture condition using synthesis gas as energy and/or carbon source.. .
|Systems and methods for hydrolysis of biomass|
Systems and methods are disclosed for treating lignocellulosic biomass to be supplied to a fermentation system for production of a fermentation product. The systems and methods comprise pre-treating the biomass into pre-treated biomass and separating the pre-treated biomass into a liquid component comprising sugars and a solids component comprising cellulose and lignin.
|Compositions and methods for probiotic recolonization therapies|
The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions suitable for the treatment of chronic diseases associated with the presence of abnormal or an abnormal distribution of microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host, which compositions comprise viable non-pathogenic or attenuated pathogenic clostridia. The compositions further comprise one or more additional viable non-pathogenic or attenuated pathogenic microorganisms selected from the group consisting of bacteroides, eubacteria, fusobacteria, propionibacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic cocci, ruminococcus, e.
This method improves and controls ex-situ or in-situ, aerobic or anaerobic digestion of organic materials and toxic or damaging compounds through increased control of multiple chemical and biological settings and conditions. The ability to control flow, natural processes, and biological activity, while adjusting to individual site conditions, offer many opportunities to modify results.
|Integrated processes for anaerobic conversion of hydrogen and carbon oxides to alcohol|
Integrated processes are disclosed for reducing the carbon foot print related to the use of non-renewable hydrocarbon gas streams for producing alcohols by anaerobic bioconversion of reformed gas. These processes combine renewable and non-renewable gas sources of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide to produce alcohol.
|Inerting method in digestion|
A method for the inerting of vessels used in the digestion of organic waste, the method characterised by the method steps of: (i) capturing exhaust gas (14) from a chemical conversion means (12); (ii) directing at least a portion of the captured exhaust gas (14) from step (i) to a vessel (40) used in the digestion of organic waste; and (iii) purging the vessel (40) using the exhaust gas (14) so as to avoid an explosive mix of gases therein, wherein the exhaust gas (14) contains sufficient oxygen to prevent substantially the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria in the vessel (40).. .
|System and method of stimulating ethanol production and growth of aquatic plants|
Methods and systems for growing aquatic plants and collecting, purifying, and/or extracting ethanol produced during anaerobic metabolism by aquatic plants are provided. The system includes a cell containing water and an aquatic plant, an ethanol extraction assembly in fluid communication with the cell for removing ethanol from the water.
|Integrated processes for anaerobic conversion of hydrogen and carbon oxides to alcohol|
Integrated processes are disclosed for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to alcohol wherein a gas substrate of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide is in contact with an aqueous menstruum that continuously contacts the gas substrate with said aqueous menstruum to produce alcohol and a depleted gas phase that is continuously withdrawn from the aqueous menstruum; continuously or intermittently and the gas substrate is made up of at least two gases having different compositions to provide an overall gas substrate having a ratio of electrons to carbon atoms in the range of about 5.2:1 to 6.8:1.. .
|Processes and control systems for high efficiency anaerobic conversion of hydrogen and carbon oxides to alcohols|
High conversion efficiency processes are disclosed for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to alcohol. The processes use bioreactors that have a non-uniform gas composition and a substantially uniform liquid composition such as deep tank bioreactors.
|Integrated processes for anaerobic conversion of hydrogen and carbon oxides to alcohol|
Integrated processes are disclosed for the anaerobic bioconversion of syngas to alcohol.. .
|Method for enhancing the fermentative potential and growth rate of microorganisms under anaerobiosis|
The present invention concerns a method for enhancing the growth rate, the biomass production and/or the fermentative potential of an anaerobic microorganism, comprising the steps consisting in: (a) modifying said anaerobic microorganism by inactivating the ohrr gene, the ohrr gene product or homolog thereof; (b) culturing the modified anaerobic microorganism obtained in step (a) under low-orp anaerobic conditions.. .
|Method for the sequenced biological treatment of water implementing biomass granules|
A method for biologically treating wastewater having organic matter is provided where the treatment occurs in a sequencing batch reactor having biomass granules therein. Wastewater to be treated is fed under anaerobic conditions into the reactor so as to fluidize the biomass granules.
|Wastewater treatment system with microbial fuel cell power|
The membrane anaerobic stabilized wastewater treatment system may be substantially free of aerobic biological treatment for processing a wastewater influent. A primary membrane element may process a pretreatment stream produced by a pretreatment system and produce a product stream effluent.
|Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles|
The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of s, se, te, and as, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties..
|Reagentless ceria-based colorimetric sensor|
A colorimetric reagent in the form of nanoparticles, composite nanoparticles, and nanoparticle coatings, including methods of use, methods of preparation, deposition, and assembly of related devices and specific applications. The colorimetric reagent comprises cerium oxide nanoparticles which are used in solution or immobilized on a solid support, either alone or in conjunction with oxidase enzymes, to form an active colorimetric component that reacts with an analyte to form a colored complex.
|Method to stimulate and sustain the anaerobic biodegradation of light non-aqueous phase liquid|
A method for treating lnapl source zones using a cost effective lnapl source zone technology to degrade residual lnapl, by introducing bioremediation amendments comprising nutritional supplements in quantities, locations, and depths required to stimulate and sustain the anaerobic biodegradation of an lnapl source zone; monitoring the lnapl source zone for adverse conditions that decrease anaerobic lnapl biodegradation; eliminating any identified adverse conditions to sustain lnapl biodegradation; and maintaining the water with nutritional supplements in quantities, locations, and depths required to stimulate and sustain the anaerobic biodegradation of lnapl.. .
|Xylanase composition with increased stability|
A xylanase composition and a method for manufacturing the xylanase composition are provided, wherein the xylanase composition comprises a xylanase and a stabilizer, and the xylanase is from an anaerobic fungus, the stabilizer comprises a polyol, and the content of the polyol is at least 40 wt %, based on the total weight of the xylanase composition.. .
|Syntrophic co-culture of anaerobic microorganism for production of n-butanol from syngas|
This invention provides compositions for the production of butanol. Specifically, the compositions of the present invention use syntrophic co-cultures for the production of butanol from syngas..
|Installation and method for biomass conversion into methane|
The present invention relates to apparatuses, such as small and medium scale processing plants, for conversion of biomass into methane and other high-grade products such as fertiliser. The present invention further relates to methods and uses of the present apparatuses for conversion of biomass into methane and other high-grade products such as fertiliser.
|Novel kluyveromyces marxianus strains and method of using strains|
Described are novel kluyveromyces marxianus strains nrrl y-50798 and y-50799, that were obtained by uv-c irradiation of wild-type k. Marxianus nrrl y-1109 cultures.
|Method for production of n-butanol from syngas using syntrophic co-cultures of anaerobic microorganisms|
This invention provides methods and systems for the production of butanol. Specifically, the methods and systems of the present invention use syntrophic co-cultures for the production of butanol from syngas..
|Abscisic acid against cancer|
Abscisic acid (aba) a naturally occurring plant hormone has been identified in this invention with potent properties to fight cancer. Aba is able to produce a hyperpolarization condition on plasma membrane through a decrease of intracellular na+ and k+.
|Pre-treatment of sludge|
A method for treating a sludge to be fed to a bioreactor for treating wastewater, or an anaerobic or aerobic sludge digester, the method comprising contacting the sludge with free nitrous acid.. .
|High-nitrogen loading for ammonia processing via anaerobic digestion|
A method and system to improve anaerobic digestion are disclosed. Simultaneous digestion of dairy manures with various food wastes improves anaerobic process stability and methane production.
|Method for preparing volatile fatty acids from the pre-treated extracts of marine biomass residue|
A method of preparing a volatile fatty acids (vfas) is provided. More particularly, the method includes chemically or biologically pretreating a residue of algae to obtain an extract of the algae residue, filtering the extract of the algae residue and anaerobically fermenting the filtrate.
|Wastewater treatment systems and methods|
The instant disclosure is directed towards methods of treating wastewater and related systems, where the system includes: a first zone comprising at least one anaerobic tank, and a second zone comprising at least one engineered wetland. In some embodiments, the system includes a third zone comprising at least one bauxite residue cell..
|Electrotransformation of clostridium pasteurianum|
By this invention, for the first time, a method for high-efficiency genetic transformation of the anaerobic bacterium clostridium pasteurianum is provided. Clostridium pasteurianum is a bacterium of substantial industrial importance, due to its selectivity and high productivity of the biofuel and biochemical n-butanol, and its ability to grow on a wide variety of inexpensive substrates.
|Steady state anaerobic denitrifying consortium for application in in-situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites and enhanced oil recovery|
Enriched steady state microbial consortiums for microbial enhanced oil recovery and in situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, under anaerobic denitrifying conditions, are disclosed.. .
|Methods of producing 7-carbon chemicals via aromatic compounds|
This document describes biochemical pathways for producing pimelic acid, 7-aminoheptanoate, 7-hydroxyheptanoate, heptamethylenediamine, or 1,7-heptanediol by forming two terminal functional groups, comprised of carboxyl, amine or hydroxyl group, in a c7 aliphatic backbone substrate produced from chorismate or benzoate. These pathways, metabolic engineering and cultivation strategies described herein rely on the anaerobic benzoyl-coa degradation pathway enzymes..