|| List of recent Amplification-related patents
| System and product placement amplification|
A system that incorporates the subject disclosure may include, for example, a memory that stores executable instructions that, when executed by the processor, facilitate performance of operations. The operations comprise obtaining product image data and comparing image data of a media program with the product image data.
At&t Intellectual Property I, Lp
| Dynamic logical groups for mapping flash memory|
A memory system or flash card may include a controller that indexes a global address table (gat) with a single data structure that addresses both large and small chunks of data. The gat may include both large logical groups and smaller logical groups for optimizing write amplification.
Sandisk Technologies Inc.
| Method and system for determining an amplification quality metric|
According to one exemplary embodiment, a method for providing a amplification quality metric to a user is provided. The method includes receiving amplification data from an amplification of a sample to generate an amplification curve.
Life Technologies Corporation
| Solid-phase clonal amplification and related methods|
The present invention provides methods and compositions for analyzing nucleic acid sequences. In some aspects, the methods utilize clonal objects, such as dna balls, that have been captured on beads.
| Ultra-sensitive detection of extremely low level biological analytes using electrochemical signal amplification and biosensor|
This invention allows ultra-low levels of virtually any biological analyte to be detected and quantified rapidly, simply and inexpensively with an electrochemical biosensor using a novel electrochemical signal amplification technique. The invention amplifies detection signals from low level analytes using an innovative sandwich elisa structure that replaces optical labels with a massive amount of electrochemically detectable guanine rich oligonucleotide tags.
| Targeted dna enrichment and sequencing|
The invention relates to a method for enriching one or more target sequences of a deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) in a composition, comprising the steps of providing a composition comprising one or more deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) molecules, hybridizing to said one or more dna molecules, one or more target specific ribonucleic acid (rna) hybridization probes, thereby forming one or more rna/dna hybrids, capturing the rna/dna hybrids with one or more antibodies being specific for such rna/dna hybrids, thereby forming one or more rna/dna/antibody hybrids, isolating the one or more rna/dna/antibody hybrids, amplifying the one or more dna molecules of the one or more rna/dna/antibody hybrids if necessary, and, optionally, sequencing the one or more dna molecules of the one or more rna/dna/antibody hybrids or the amplification product, wherein the sequencing is preferably done by means of next generation sequencing. The invention also relates to a kit comprising a first an antibody which is specific for a dna/rna hybrid molecule, wherein optionally the antibody is bound to a magnetic particle, and additionally comprising one or more target specific rna hybridization probes..
| Nucleic acid amplification|
Methods and compositions for the amplification of nucleic acids and generation of concatemers are disclosed. Amplification methods provided herein may be performed under isothermal conditions.
| Reducing the spectral bandwidth of lasers|
A laser system for semiconductor inspection includes a fiber-based fundamental light source for generating fundamental light that is then converted/mixed by a frequency conversion module to generate uv-duv laser light. The fundamental light source includes a nonlinear chirp element (e.g., a bragg grating or an electro-optic modulator) that adds a nonlinear chirp to the seed light laser system prior to amplification by the fiber amplifier(s) (e.g., doped fiber or raman amplifiers).
| Liquid ejecting apparatus and head unit|
A liquid ejecting apparatus includes an original drive signal generation section that generates an original drive signal, a signal modulation section that modulates the original drive signal and generates a modulation signal, a signal amplification section that amplifies the modulation signal and generates an amplification modulation signal, a signal conversion section that converts the amplification modulation signal into a drive signal, a piezoelectric element that deforms by the drive signal, a cavity that expands or contracts due to deformation of the piezoelectric element, a nozzle that communicates with the cavity and ejects a liquid in response to increase and decrease of a pressure inside the cavity, and a temperature detection section that detects a temperature of the signal conversion section.. .
Seiko Epson Corporation
| Rf power amplifier and operating method thereof|
A multiband rf power amplifier includes a first band rf amplifier circuit, a second band rf amplifier circuit and a second band power detection circuit. The second band rf amplifier circuit subjects an rf input signal having a frequency band to power amplification and generates an rf amplifier output signal.
Renesas Electronics Corporation
Power supply device, transmission device using same, and operating power supply device
A power supply device includes a switching amplification unit that supplies power to a load, a linear amplification unit that corrects an output voltage applied to the load according to an input signal, and a power supply control unit that controls the power supply of the linear amplification unit according to the input signal.. .
A balun converts a single-ended radio-frequency signal into differential signals. A differential matching circuit outputs a maximum-level positive-phase output signal at a lower or higher frequency than the center frequency and outputs a maximum-level reverse-phase output signal at a higher or lower frequency than the center frequency.
Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
High speed sampling front-end circuit
A high-speed sampling front-end circuit is presented that includes a mdac sampling network, a reference voltage generator circuit, a comparator array, an operational amplifier, an output short-circuit switch, an adjustable clock duty cycle stabilizer, a status control module and a feedback control module. The circuit features low power, high sampling rate and high input bandwidth of sampling network.
No. 24 Research Institute Of China Electronic Technology Corporation
Apparatus and driving piezoelectric actuator, and system for driving piezoelectric actuator using the same
An apparatus for driving a piezoelectric actuator may include: a digital-to-analog conversion unit receiving digital waveform information and outputting an analog signal corresponding thereto; an amplification unit amplifying the analog signal to generate an analog voltage; and a power supply unit supplying power for the amplification. The power supply unit adjusts a level of the power using the digital waveform information..
Samsung Electro-mechanics Co., Ltd.
Solid-state imaging device
A solid-state imaging device according to the present disclosure includes: a charge storage region that stores a signal charge obtained through photoelectric conversion in a photoelectric conversion film; an amplification transistor that amplifies the signal charge stored in the charge storage region in a corresponding pixel; a contact plug that is electrically connected to the charge storage region and contains a semiconductor material; and a line that is disposed above the contact plug and contains a semiconductor material. The contact plug and the charge storage region are electrically connected, and the contact plug and a gate electrode of the amplification transistor are electrically connected via the line..
Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
Apparatus and methods for hyperspectral imaging with on-chip digital time delay and integration
An apparatus and corresponding method for line-scan imaging can include a 2d array of light-sensitive detector elements that detect light from a target scene. The 2d array can be divided into a plurality of sub-arrays and supported by an analog amplification and signal conditioning module portion of a read-out integrated circuit (roic), the analog module having one or more replicated amplification and signal conditioning circuits in communication with the 2d array detector elements.
Eo Vista, Llc
Sample preparation, processing and analysis systems
This disclosure provides an integrated and automated sample-to-answer system that, starting from a sample comprising biological material, generates a genetic profile in less than two hours. In certain embodiments, the biological material is dna and the genetic profile involves determining alleles at one or a plurality of loci (e.g., genetic loci) of a subject, for example, an str (short tandem repeat) profile, for example as used in the codis system.
Flow rate measuring device
To measure the propagation time of an ultrasonic signal, the flow rate measuring device of the present invention has amplifier for amplifying a received signal, reference-voltage changing part, reference-voltage setting part, and reference comparator for comparing between the received signal waveform and reference voltage. Reference-voltage changing part changes the reference voltage according to the amplification degree of the amplified waveform of the received signal in amplifier.
Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
Systems and methods for log coordination
A storage module may be configured to perform log storage operations on a storage log maintained on a non-volatile storage medium. An i/o client may utilize storage services of the storage module to maintain an upper-level log.
Automated nucleic acid repeat count calling methods
The present disclosure relates to processes for determining the number of nucleic acid repeats in a dna fragment comprising a nucleic acid repeat region. One example method may include receiving dna size and abundance data generated by resolving dna amplification products.
Fluorescence detector for microfluidic diagnostic system
The present technology provides for a fluorescent detector that is configured to detect light emitted for a probe characteristic of a polynucleotide. The polynucleotide is undergoing amplification in a microfluidic channel with which the detector is in optical communication.
Method of nucleic acid amplification
A nucleic acid molecule can be annealed to an appropriate immobilized primer. The primer can then be extended and the molecule and the primer can be separated from one another.
Method for assessing endometriosis
The present invention provides a diagnostic agent for endometriosis for measuring the concentration of at least one mirna selected from the group consisting of hsa-mir-708, hsa-mir-127-3p and hsa-mir-518d-3p in a sample derived from the blood of a subject, the agent containing an amplification primer for the mirna as a main component. The present invention also provides a method of detecting endometriosis, including a step of measuring the concentration of at least one mirna selected, from the group consisting of hsa-mir-708, hsa-mir-127-3p and hsa-mir-518d-3p in a sample derived from the blood of the subject.
Nucleic acid sequencing systems and methods
The present invention relates to systems and methods for performing isothermal amplification reactions. In particular, the present invention relates to denaturation methods for use in isothermal amplification reactions..
Multimode power amplifier bias circuit with selectable bandwidth
Multimode power amplifier bias circuit with selectable bandwidth. In some embodiments, a bias circuit for a power amplifier can include a first bipolar junction transistor (bjt) configured to pass a reference current.
Electronic device and switching power amplifiers
A method for an electronic device includes amplifying a signal by a first power amplifier, obtaining a temperature of the first power amplifier during the amplification of the signal, comparing the temperature of the first power amplifier to a predetermined threshold value, and switching the first power amplifier to a second power amplifier for amplifying a signal if the temperature of the first power amplifier is higher than a threshold value. An electronic device for switching power amplifiers are also disclosed..
System and measuring flourescence of a sample
The present disclosure provides a system and a method for measuring fluorescence of a sample. The sample may be a polymerase-chain-reaction (pcr) array, a loop-mediated-isothermal amplification array, etc.
Methods of detecting charcot-marie tooth disease type 2a
Methods are described for screening a subject for risk of charcot-marie-tooth disease type 2a or for diagnosing charcot-marie-tooth disease or a predisposition for developing charcot-marie-tooth disease in a subject, by detecting the presence or absence of a mutation in the mitofusin gene in a biological sample collected from the subject. Methods are also described for detecting the presence of a genetic polymorphism associated with charcot-marie-tooth disease type 2a in a sample of patient nucleic acid, by amplifying a mitofusin gene sequence in the patient nucleic acid to produce an amplification product; and identifying the presence of a charcot-marie-tooth disease type 2a associated polymorphism in the amplification product..
Method for increasing accuracy in quantitative detection of polynucleotides
Disclosed is a method for improving the sensitivity and accuracy of quantitative detection of polynucleotides in a sample, such a clinical specimen, by a method that utilizes a two- or three-step process of tagging/labeling target molecules and adding an adapter sequence for adding a universal primer for efficient amplification of targets while decreasing target amplification bias. When combined with the step of statistically correcting for sequencing errors, the method can significantly increase the accuracy of quantitative detection of polynucleotides in a sample..
Image processing apparatus, image processing method, program, printing medium, and recording medium
When obtaining subband signals by performing multiresolution decomposition on image data using a broad-sense pinwheel framelet or a pinwheel wavelet frame, having a degree, that is a set of an approximate filter with no orientation and a plurality of detail filters with respective orientations, and acquiring processed image data by the subband signals in a decomposition phase of the multiresolution decomposition, or processed image data that has been reconstructed into an image by summing the subband signals in a synthesis phase of the multiresolution decomposition, the present invention performs attenuation or amplification of the subband signals in the decomposition phase of the multiresolution decomposition that correspond to at least one of the filters.. .
Power amplification module
Disclosed is a power amplification module which has a comparatively small size and is capable of adjusting the rising characteristic of a gain. The power amplification module includes a first gain control current generation circuit which generates a first gain control current changing with a control voltage, a first bias current generation circuit which generates a first bias current according to the first gain control current, a gain control voltage generation circuit which generates a gain control voltage changing with the control voltage, a first transistor which is emitter-grounded and in which an input signal and the first bias current are supplied to a base thereof, and a second transistor which is cascode-connected to the first transistor and in which the gain control voltage is supplied to a base thereof and a first output signal obtained by amplifying the input signal is output from a collector thereof..
Joint optimisation of supply and bias modulation
There is disclosed a technique for controlling at least one amplification stage, comprising: selecting a linearity objective for the amplification stage; in dependence on an input signal to said amplification stage, determining a combination of supply input and bias input for the amplification stage in order to meet said linearity objective; and in dependence on there being more than one combination of supply input and bias input for meeting the linearity objective, selecting the combination that optimises a further system performance objective for the amplification stage. The further system performance objective may be one or more of: an efficiency objective; an envelope signal bandwidth objective; or a robustness to production tolerance objective..
Stress amplification factor analysis methodology for assessing fatigue performance of threaded connectors
A computer-implemented method is disclosed for characterizing a threaded coupling such as between two tubular members, e.g., casing segments employed in the field of oil and gas recovery. In one embodiment, a virtual model of the coupling is generated, and the virtual model is re-arranged to simulate plastic deformation of at least part of the coupling.
Vetco Gray Inc.
Balloon catheter with lithotripsy amplification system
An intraluminal scoring system for expanding an opening within an intraluminal passage includes a balloon catheter which is positioned alongside plaque lining a wall of the intraluminal passage. A wire is positioned between the balloon and the plaque so that the inflation of the balloon restricts the wire between the balloon and the plaque.
Cook Medical Technologies Llc
Method and providing dynamic multi-stage signal amplification in a medical device
Methods and apparatus for providing multi-stage signal amplification in a medical telemetry system are provided.. .
Abbott Diabetes Care Inc.
Sensitive and rapid candidatus liberibacter species detection
Dna amplification methods using novel primers obtained from the novel genes for hyvi and hyvii s from the candidatus liberibacter asiaticus genome and useful for detecting ca. L.
The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of Agriculture
Technique combining pcr and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of nucleic acids
The present invention relates to a method and a kit of parts for detecting the presence or absence of one or more target nucleic acid sequences in a sample, the method comprising a sequence of steps for pre-amplifying the sample by means of a polymerase chain reaction, followed by a sequence of steps comprising an isothermal amplification of the pre-amplified sample, wherein the isothermal amplification comprises a pair of primers comprising a forward primer having a 3′ part that is substantially complementary to a first part of the target sequence, the presence or absence of which is to be detected, and a 5′ part that is substantially homolog to a second part of the target sequence, and a reverse primer comprising a 3′ part that is substantially homolog to a fourth part of the target sequence and a 5′ part that is substantially complementary to a third part of the target sequence.. .
Compositions and methods for sensitive mutation detection in nucleic acid molecules
The present disclosure provides methods for detecting mutations in a target nucleic acid molecule by rolling circle amplification of a library of double-stranded circular bar-coded template molecules. Also provided herein are methods for enriching a target nucleic acid molecule..
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Compressed amplitude wireless signal and compression function
Compression of an input signal prior to high power radio frequency (rf) amplification and transmission is disclosed. A compression device can receive an input signal and generate a compressed signal that can be passed to an amplification stage to reduce intermodulation effects.
At&t Mobility Ii Llc
Method for electrochemically identifying target nucleotide sequences
A method and assembly for electrochemically identifying target nucleotide sequences. The method includes supplying a biological sample that may contain a predetermined target nucleotide sequence; supplying activatable amplification materials comprising free nucleotides to form replicated target nucleotide sequences; supplying an oxido-reducible compound capable of being inserted during replication between the nucleotides forming the replicated target sequences; and activating the activatable amplification materials before applying an electric field to the sample in order to activate the oxido-reducible compound.
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (cnrs)
Methods for multiplexing amplification reactions
A two-step multiplex amplification reaction includes a first step which truncates the standard initial multiplex amplification round to “boost” the sample copy number by only a 100-1000 fold increase in the target. Following the first step the product is divided into optimized secondary single amplification reactions, each containing one of the primer sets that were used previously in the first or multiplexed booster step.
Applied Biosystems, Llc
Assays for resistance to echinocandin-class drugs
Nucleic acid amplification assays for mutations to two short sections of the fungal gene fks1. Mutations in these target sequences have been shown to correlate with resistance to echinocandin-class drugs.
Merck & Co., Inc.
Reduction of implant infection via tunable stimulation of localized adaptive immune response
Compositions, implantation devices and methods for stimulating an immune response to infection are discussed. In some examples, the compositions, implantation devices or methods of regulating the amplification of an adaptive immune response to infection involves use of one or more particles locally at a surgical or implant site to control bacterial infections without detrimental systemic side-effects.
40g/100g/200g/400g pluggable optical transceivers with advanced functionality
Integrated performance monitoring (pm); optical layer operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (oam&p); alarming; amplification, and the like is described in optical transceivers, such as multi-source agreement (msa)-defined modules. A pluggable optical transceiver defined by an msa agreement can include advanced integrated functions for carrier-grade operation which preserves the existing msa specifications allowing the pluggable optical transceiver to operate with any compliant msa host device with advanced features and functionality, such as forward error correction (fec), framing, and oam&p directly on the pluggable optical transceiver.
Menara Networks, Inc.
Multi-band harmonic discrimination for feedback supression
A method and audio signal processor for detecting feedback in an electrical amplification system divides a frequency spectrum into a plurality of frequency bands, classifies a tone present in an incoming audio signal into one of the plurality of frequency bands based on a frequency of the tone, selects a threshold value based on the frequency band into which the tone is classified, and disqualifies the tone from potentially being feedback if an amplitude of the tone is greater than an amplitude of a harmonic of the tone by less than the threshold value. The tone is deemed to be potentially feedback if the amplitude of the tone is greater than an amplitude of a plurality of harmonics of the tone by at least the threshold value..
Solid-state imaging device, driving the same, and electronic apparatus
A solid-state imaging device includes a pixel array unit in which a plurality of imaging pixels configured to generate an image, and a plurality of phase difference detection pixels configured to perform phase difference detection are arranged, each of the plurality of phase difference detection pixels including a plurality of photoelectric conversion units, a plurality of floating diffusions configured to convert charges stored in the plurality of photoelectric conversion units into voltage, and a plurality of amplification transistors configured to amplify the converted voltage in the plurality of floating diffusions.. .
Image pickup apparatus having photoelectric conversion function
An image pickup apparatus that makes it possible to achieve both high picture quality and a wide dynamic range is provided. Each pixel unit included in the image pickup apparatus includes: four photodiodes; four transfer transistors; a charge storage portion (four floating diffusions) for storing electric charges generated at the photodiodes; an amplification transistor; a select transistor; and a reset transistor.
Renesas Electronics Corporation
Comparator and analog-to-digital converter using the same
A comparator includes a first amplification unit suitable for differentially amplifying a pixel signal and a ramp signal, a second amplification unit suitable for amplifying a signal outputted from the first amplification unit and outputting a comparison result, a current control unit suitable for controlling a current flow in response to the comparison result and a current compensation and noise removal unit suitable for compensating for current and removing noise under control of the current control unit.. .
Sk Hynix Inc.
An amplification stage comprising: an input scaling block for scaling an input signal in dependence on an input scaling factor to generate a scaled version of the input signal; a power amplifier for generating an amplified version of the scaled input signal; an envelope detector for generating a signal representing the envelope of the input signal; an envelope scaling block for scaling the envelope signal in dependence on an envelope scaling factor to generate a scaled version of the envelope signal; a non-linear mapping block for generating a voltage representative of the supply voltage in dependence on the scaled envelope signal; a modulator for generating a power supply voltage for the amplifier in dependence on the voltage generated by the non-linear mapping block; and a power control block for maintaining a linear relationship between the envelope scaling factor and the input scaling factor.. .
Pcb capacitor variable device and method
There are provided pcb capacitor variable device and method. The pcb capacitor variable device includes: a pcb forming any parallel capacitor by disposing a dielectric layer between a first pattern and a second pattern; and a switch unit connected to a pattern of one of the capacitors to switch the pattern of one of the capacitors so as to control equivalent capacitance of the capacitor.
Samsung Electro-mechanics Co., Ltd.
Solid-state imaging device, manufacturing the same, and electronic apparatus
A solid-state imaging device includes two-dimensionally arranged pixels, and each pixel includes a photoelectric conversion element configured to generate charges according to a light amount of incident light and accumulate the charges therein; and at least one of an amplification transistor configured to amplify a voltage corresponding to the charges accumulated in the photoelectric conversion element, a readout transistor configured to read a signal of the voltage amplified by the amplification transistor, and a reset transistor configured to reset the charges accumulated in the photoelectric conversion element, a channel region of each transistor being formed in a direction perpendicular to a substrate.. .
Solid-state image sensing device and manufacturing the same
The present invention improves the performance of an image sensor. In a planar view, fluorine is introduced into a part overlapping with a channel region in a gate electrode ge1 of an amplification transistor and is not introduced into the interior of a semiconductor substrate 1s.
Renesas Electronics Corporation
3d stacked image sensor with pmos components
An active pixel sensor comprises a sensor die and a circuit die. The sensor die comprises a plurality of pixels, wherein each pixel includes a light sensitive element and a transfer gate, a floating diffusion region, wherein the plurality of pixels include at least one reset gate.
Silicon Optronics, Inc.
3d stacked image sensor
An active pixel sensor comprises a sensor die and a circuit die. The sensor die comprises a plurality of pixels.
Silicon Optronics, Inc.
Sound amplification box and sound amplification device including the same
Provided are a sound amplification box and a sound amplification device. The sound amplification box includes a body including a predetermined resonance space therein and having a surface contacting an electronic device, a resonance hole formed in at least one surface of the body, and a vibration transmission part in a predetermined region of the surface contacting the electronic device..
Innochips Technology Co., Ltd.
Detection device, sensor, electronic apparatus, and moving object
A detection device includes a driving circuit which drives a vibrator, and a detection circuit which detects a desired signal. The driving circuit includes a current-voltage conversion circuit which receives a feedback signal, and performs a current-voltage conversion, a drive signal output circuit which amplifies an input voltage signal after being subjected to the current-voltage conversion, and outputs a drive signal of a sine wave, and a gain control circuit which controls a gain of amplification of the drive signal in the drive signal output circuit.
Seiko Epson Corporation
Patient monitor sensor type auto configuration
A method and system that allows various sensor types to be connected to common input ports of a patient monitor. The system includes a data acquisition module that identifies the type of sensor connected to each one of a plurality of input ports.
General Electric Company
Devices and methods for sensing physiological signals during stimulation therapy
Devices and methods provide for the sensing of physiological signals during stimulation therapy by preventing stimulation waveform artifacts from being passed through to the amplification of the sensed physiological signal. Thus, the amplifiers are not adversely affected by the stimulation waveform and can provide for successful sensing of physiological signals between stimulation waveform pulses.
Method for retaining even coverage of short insert libraries
The invention relates to a method of preparing a library of template polynucleotides with uniform sequence representation and to use of a library of templates prepared using this method for solid-phase nucleic acid amplification. In particular, the invention relates to a method of preparing a library of template polynucleotides which have common sequences at their 5′ ends and at their 3′ ends, which contains even representation of all the fragments present in a starting sample of nucleic acid before fragmentation.
Illumina Cambridge Limited
Nucleic acid amplification
The present invention provides methods for the amplification of nucleic acid molecules. Methods for amplifying target polynucleotides, including mrna, using oligonucleotides, dna and rna polymerases are provided.
Life Technologies Corporation
Single-molecule pcr on microparticles in water-in-oil emulsions
Modulation of the viscosity of the oil phase of a microemulsion used for amplification of dna on a bead increases the homogeneity of product beads and the amount of amplified dna per bead. Moreover the number of separate microemulsion populations that can be formed in parallel is increased using multi-well plates and mixer mill disrupter machines designed to lyse biological samples..
The Johns Hopkins University
Apparatus with heterogeneous processing modules
A biological sample processing apparatus having an enclosure. A plurality of sample processing modules are held by the enclosure.
Device for improving the stray isolation between the antennas in the bilateral antenna and the method thereof
The present invention relates to the communication technology field, more specifically, to a scheme of bilateral antenna. A device for improving the stray isolation between the antennas in the bilateral antenna comprises a plurality of communication modules having an antenna and a power amplification module; at least one of the communication modules further comprises a tuning module.
Spreadtrum Communications (shanghai) Co., Ltd.
Method and predicting susceptibility to a developmental disorder
A nucleotide sequence signal amplification composition that includes an isolated, synthetic nucleotide sequence of greater than 7 nucleotides. The sequence is a fragment of seq id no:3 and further comprising a t nucleotide at position 1438 of seq id no:3 and one or more primers that bind to the synthetic nucleotide sequence, a thermostable dna polymerase, restriction enzyme, or a combination thereof..
Centre For Addiction And Mental Health
Method for processing polynucleotide-containing samples
Methods and systems for processing polynucleotides (e.g., dna) are disclosed. A processing region includes one or more surfaces (e.g., particle surfaces) modified with ligands that retain polynucleotides under a first set of conditions (e.g., temperature and ph) and release the polynucleotides under a second set of conditions (e.g., higher temperature and/or more basic ph).